Saturday, August 26, 2017

A Time to Remember
Annual Review

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
I started this blog seven years ago on the 26th August 2010. It is tilted towards my favorite art passions: prints on cloth, prints on paper and wearable art. In that time the blog spot has attracted over 650,000 visitors.

The blog spot also provides an art therapy for me. I was determined from the very beginning that its purpose was to inform, aspire and inspire others to get on with their own artwork. At the outset my commitment was simple: I would blog approximately 50 posts a year, including an annual review about the most popular post in the given year within each category. For your convenience I have listed below the other annual reviews that span the life of this blog spot.

Where Did The Year Go? (2010/2011)
It's Been An Exciting Year (2011/2012)
Another Cheer - Another Year (2012/2013)
The Year of the Horse (2013/2014)
Cold and Windy - But on the Dawn of Renewal (2014/2015)
A Time To Reflect - A Time To Select (2015/2016)

Before I list the categories and the most popular post within each category let me digress and ask - who are some of the most important people who were born on the 26th of August? According to the horoscope August 26th birthday people are influenced by the planets Mercury and Saturn. They have a unique set of personality traits that differentiates them from the rest of the Virgos. Individuals with this birthday are practical and balanced with a level-headed mind. They are absolutely calm and composed with a graceful demeanor and a peaceful disposition. They are attention seekers who have high standards on everything. Individuals born on this date put justice and being fair on a high pedestal in life. Thus, they are fair in their dealings and resort to just ways. However, August 26th individuals are prone to low moods and so might have mild tantrums. Needless to say I was not born on this day, but if it is your birthday today - have a good one!

Here is my top five list compiled from reference[1].


Mother Teresa - Founder of Missionaries of Charity.


Dora Gabe - Poet.


Peggy Guggenheim - Art Collector and Patron of the Arts.


Rafino Tamayo - Mexican Painter.


Federick R. Koch - Art Collector.


A Time To Remember
The number of categories on this blog spot keeps growing. They are as follows: (i) ArtCloth; (ii) Art Essay; (iii) Art Exhibitions/Installations/Talks; (iv) Artist's Profile; (v) Art Resource; (vi) Art Review; (vii) Book Review; (viii) Fabric Lengths; (ix) Glossaries; (x) Guest Artist; (xi) Guest Editor; (xii) My Students Outputs (Workshops and Master Classes); (xiii) Opinion Pieces; (xiv) Resource Reviews; (xv) Prints On Paper; (xvi) Technical Articles; (xvii) Wearable Art.

Swamped by all these categories you probably have not noticed that "Fabric Lengths" is a new category, which in previous years was characterized in the "Wearable Art" category. Although "Fabric Lengths" can be used to make "Wearable Art" they can also be made into cushion covers, chair covers, curtains etc.and so they need to be in a category of their own.

Not all of these categories are present in any given year (e.g. Artist's Profile, Guest Editor, Technical Articles etc do not appear this year). Also judging a post by the one criterion - most amount of visitors - is not necessarily the smartest approach, since the length of stay might mitigate the former statistic. How often have you heard yourself say - oops I really didn't mean to google this hunk of a man when I searched for "loincloth"! Nevertheless, this one statistic makes matters so much easier for me and so it will be used as the final arbitrator!

ArtCloth
There were four posts in this category since the last annual review that were not part of an Exhibition blog (some nevertheless were exhibited). Of these the most popular was - Fleeting - and it was the most popular by only 101 visitors.

Fleeting - Detailed View.
Marie-Therese’s digitally designed and printed fabric length, silkscreened and hand stitched employing gold foil, lutrador and cotton thread on silky faille.
Size: 60 cm wide x 306 cm high.

Art Essay
There were six post in this category with the two most popular being Découpage and Appliqué with the former being the most popular by 36 visitors.

Child’s vintage wooden shoe and shoe tree découpage with fine strips of floral border.
Courtesy of Diane Dowe.

Art Exhibitions/Installations/Talks
There were six posts that were focussed on exhibitions and in this category two posts focussed on the one exhibition - Make Lace Not War. The most popular post in this category was Sea Scrolls - Celebrating 50 Years of Print (Prints on Cloth and Prints on Paper).

Artist: Therese Gabriel Wilkins.
Title: Playtime at the Beach (Full View).
Technique and Media: Hand printed on cotton.

Art Resource
Of the eleven "Art Resource" posts, the post highlighting Twill Weave was by far the most popular. This post was one in a series of four posts that highlighted the three basic weaves: Plain Weave, Twill Weave and Satin Weave.

A twill weave blanket which was created using 8 harnesses and 10 treadles.

Art Review
There were three posts in this category and the most popular being Traditional Japanese Arabesque Patterns (Part II). The first part of this series was published on 11th October 2014 - Traditional Japanese Arabesque Patterns (Part I) - and the third post in this series was published on 27th May 2017 - Sarasa Arabesque Patterns (Part III). While it would be expected that Part III in the series would not have seen so many visitors as Part II, what is surprising is that Part II is the most popular even though Part I was on the blogspot for almost two years longer - go figure!

Arabesque Pattern Number 210.

Book Review
There was only one book review and that was Jane Dunnewold's book - Creative Strength Training: Prompts, Exercises and Personal Stories for Encouraging Artistic Genius. I have been a friend of Jane's for sometime now and look forward to her next book. Her books are a "must" for those who want to create their own ArtCloth, Art Quilts or Wearable Art as her books guide you conceptually as well as contain quite an array of techniques to get you there.



Fabric Lengths
This is a new category dominated this year by my digital printed fabric lengths. There were four posts in this year's review and the most popular featured my non-digital work - New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics. Clearly digital colorways are all the rage, but the effects one can get using analogue modes still has significant visual impact!

Artist: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Title: 'Cultural Graffiti' in rich red/warm gold hues (draped on model view).
Technique: Dyed, over dyed, discharged, silk screened and foiled on rayon employing dyes, pigment, metallic paint and foil.
Size: 185 cm (wide) x 121 cm (high).

Guest Artist
There was only one person in this category and that was Shirley McKernan. The post was titled - Reality, Influence and Invention - and the post highlighted just glimpses of her spectacular work. It is well worth revisiting this post and gaining an insight into the art of breaking down complex ideas into creative artworks.

Artist: Shirley McKernan.
Title: Stairs to the Moon (Full view).
Medium: Silk habotai.
Technique: Hand stitched lines to create a resist for the Indigo dye.
Size: 108 cm high x 37 cm wide.

Glossaries
There was only one Glossary in this period and it was Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements. At the time of this post being published that one Glossary has brought over 6,000 visitors to the blogspot. These glossaries are difficult to construct and so I hope that people will make good use of them.

Abuna-e (Risqué Pictures - Japanese): Ukiyo-e, which illustrate gently erotic scenes.

My Students Outputs
Presenting my students outputs on this blogspot is always pleasurable. Judi Nikoleski did my workshop - In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP). It was a pleasure to teach my LRSP techniques to Judi. As you can see by the image below she quickly found her artistic voice using my LRSP techniques.

Artist - Judi Nikoleski - multi color low relief screen print employing textured media.

Opinion Pieces
There was only one opinion piece in this period and it was The Dilemma of Digital Art. As artists we really want to define in our mine's eye the subject and composition of our work before we get into the act of creating it. Of course, we can and often do adjust as we progress in the formation of the artwork, but in the digital world we can produce millions of images and then just grab one that we have serendipitously produced and then backtrack and make-up a story of why it was produced. In other words we have created an effect looking for a cause. This essay explores this reality and the effect it might have on the future of Art.

A water color rough of this was constructed before the artwork was produced. An example of a "cause" producing an "effect" rather than an "effect" searching for a "cause".
Marie-Therese Wisniowski, Flames Unfurling (2010).
Technique: MultiSpersed Dye Sublimation (MSDS) technique on delustered satin.
Size: 44 x 30 cm.

Prints on Paper
There were a number of posts focussing on "Prints on Paper" with the most popular being - Northern Editions - which showcased Aboriginal artists works on paper. Some of the work is contemporary, whereas others were using more traditional Aboriginal motifs.

Artist: Dion Beasley.
Title: Dog Police.
Community: Tennant Creek.
Medium: Etching.
Image Size and Paper Size: 29.5 x 20 cm and 46.5 x 38 cm.
Edition Date and Size: October 2010; 50.

Resource Review
There was only one post centering on "Resource Review" and that was The Australian Museum of Clothing and Textiles. The founding member is Nell Pyle, who assembled a large collection of clothing that spans over a century. What is surprising is that it is a non-government sponsored Museum which hopefully will find a permanent residence for fashion parades, talks on the collection and fashion in general with curated exhibitions, and displays of its permanent collection. Australia does not have a Museum dedicated to clothing and textiles. I wrote an opinion piece on this blog spot - Is Textile Art in Australia Mature Enough for a Dedicated Museum? It is clear Nell and her gang have answered that question in the affirmative.

Comments: The bonnet was a sensible and serviceable work garment of cotton, in a paisley design. The ties made sure it stayed on the head in windy weather or when caught in a branch. The front of the bonnet provided protection from the sun and wind when worn forward. The length of the 'skirt' gave protection to the neck.

Wearable Art
There were a number of posts in the "Wearable Art" category and the most popular being Felted accessories. Felt never seems to leave our artistic horizons. It is such an old technique and so appears very rustic to our senses. It is a fabric that appears to connect us with our own evolutionary process. As we become more inventive with the fabric it translates to us the journey of the human species.

Karoliina Arvilommi – Karelia Hat (2007).
Materials and Techniques: Finnish Landrace wool batting, yarn; wet felted.
Size: 35 x 35 x 20 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Liselotte Habets[1].

I hope you have enjoyed the review of the last twelve month's blogging activity. Remember every mark you make on cloth or paper might be the beginning of your next "da Vinci" moment!


Reference:
[1] https://www.thefamouspeople.com/august-26th.php

Saturday, August 19, 2017

In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP)
Workshop Outputs of Pauline Cosgrove
2017 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program

Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This blogspot exhibits many of my students outputs from a variety of workshops. There are one, two and five day workshops as well as workshops that have a different focus. Nevertheless, it always surprises me how much I learn from my students and how enthusiastic they are to learn and so for your convenience, I have listed the workshop posts below.

The University of Newcastle Multi-Media Course
The University of Newcastle (Newcastle and Ourimbah Campuses, NSW, Australia) 2008 to 2010.

One and Two Day Disperse Dye Workshops
Various Textile Groups (Australia) 2008 - 2011.

Five Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
“Wrapt in Rocky” Textile Fibre Forum Conference (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia) 29th June to 5th July 2008.

Five Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
Orange Textile Fiber Forum (Orange, NSW, Australia) 19th to 25th April 2009.

5 Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
Geelong Fiber Forum (Geelong, Victoria, Australia) 27th September to 3rd October 2009.

Two Day Workshop - Deconstructed and Polychromatic Screen Printing
Beautiful Silks (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 20th to 21st March 2010.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
“Wrapt in Rocky” Biennial Textile Forum/Conference Program (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia) 25th June to 1st July 2010.

Two Day Workshop – Improvisational Screen Printing
ATASDA (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 28th to 29th August 2010.

Two Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Day One)
”Stitching and Beyond” Textile Group (Woodbridge, Tasmania, Australia) 2nd to 3rd October 2010.

Two Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Day Two)
”Stitching and Beyond” Textile Group (Woodbridge, Tasmania, Australia) 2nd to 3rd October 2010.

Advance Silk Screen Printing
Redcliffe City Art Gallery Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia) 10th April 2011.

One Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
The Victorian Feltmakers Inc. (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 14th May 2011.

One Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Felted and Silk Fibers)
Victorian Feltmakers Inc (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 15th May 2011.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
SDA (Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) 13th to 17th June 2011.

Five Day Disperse Dye Master Class – Barbara Scott
Art Quill Studio (Arcadia Vale, NSW, Australia) 15th to 19th August 2011.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Fiber Arts Australia (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 26th September to 1st October 2011.

One Day Workshop – Improvisational Screen Printing
Newcastle Printmakers Workshop Inc. (Newcastle, NSW, Australia) 5th November 2011.

One Day Workshops – Low Relief Screen Printing
Various classes within Australia.

Two Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
ATASDA (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 23rd to 24th June 2012.

MSDS Demonstration at Zijdelings
(Tilburg, The Netherlands) October, 2012.

Five Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Fibre Arts@Ballarat (Ballarat, Victoria, Australia) 6th to 12th April 2013.

Two Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
EFTAG (Tuross Head, NSW, Australia) 13th to 14th April 2013.

Two Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Zijdelings Studio (Tilburg, The Netherlands) 9th to 10th October 2014.

PCA - Celebrating 50 Years in 2016
Art Quill Studio 2016 Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part I
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part II
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Improvisational Screen Printing Workshop
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP) Workshop 2016
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Art Quill Studio 2017 Workshop Program
2017 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).


Introduction
Today's post highlights outcomes from Pauline Cosgrove doing Workshop No. 5 in the 2017 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program - In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP). For Australian enquiries about workshops please email me at Marie-Therese. For overseas enquiries these workshops may be held in overseas venues provided that there are enough participants per workshop (10-15 participants) and that within each country a sufficient number of workshops can be organized in order to make the journey cost-effective (5-10 workshops). Please email me at Marie-Therese to initiate a discussion on the feasibility of such an overseas venture.

In person Master Classes are also available. For more details of these Master Classes email me at Marie-Therese. For Master Class outcomes see - Barbara Scott. On-line classes will be available in 2017.


One Day Workshop Synopsis - In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing
Workshop Outcomes of Pauline Cosgrove

The one day "In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP) Workshop" was held at Art Quill Studio in Arcadia Vale, NSW, Australia on the 7th August 2017.

In this one day workshop Pauline Cosgrove learnt the tutor’s signature LRSP technique using low relief textured items in tandem with a silkscreen. The technique produces one print with each pass that results in a mono print series of prints. The images have a lovely organic, textural quality and lend themselves to interesting color combinations.

Some prior experience using a silkscreen was recommended for this class. Below are workshop outputs created by Pauline Cosgrove.


Pauline's Artist Statement
I'm a "textile tragic" from way back. After completing courses in screen-printing, colour and design in the 1980s and running a small screen-printing business, I now have the luxury to explore the many different disciplines involved in textile embellishment. I've pinched, scrunched, wrapped, tied and dyed and then repeated the process. I've hand-painted, discharged, overprinted and stamped and I never cease to be amazed at the unexpected results - I just love that surprise element!

My inspiration comes from the numerous patterns, textures and beautiful organic shapes I find in nature. I'm also drawn to the many and varied possibilities of color - layering, mixing and overprinting to create unique textile works.


Pauline's Workshop Outputs

Pauline Cosgrove concentrating on cutting shapes from some low relief texture items for LRSP screen-printing.


Pauline taking a moment from cutting shapes to pose for my photo request!


Three color low relief screen print employing flora.


Various color blends create this low relief screen print employing flora.


Additional various color blends create this low relief screen print employing flora.


Multi color low relief textured screen print employing lace fiber media.


Three color low relief screen print employing textured media.


Multi color low relief screen print employing textured media.


Multi color low relief textured screen print employing various media.


Another multi color low relief textured screen print employing various media.

Saturday, August 12, 2017

"Celebratory Fireworks"
A New Collection of Digitally Designed Fabrics
Fabric Lengths

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
On this blog spot there are posts that center on my “Wearable Art” (e.g. scarves, digital or analogue created fabric lengths etc.) For your convenience I have listed these posts below.

A Selection of My Scarves
Leaves Transformed: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
My New Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery
My Fabric Lengths@QSDS
My Fabric Collection:"Oh, Oh Marilyn and Mona!"@Spoonflower
2013 Australian Craft Awards – Finalist
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival: "Urban Artscape" Pashminas
My New Scarves and Fabric Lengths
New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash
AIVA: My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics
Byzantine Glow: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Wall Flower: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Ink Fern - A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics


Introduction
I have been designing my hand dyed and hand printed fabric lengths using a range of fabrics and multiple surface design techniques. As a professional senior graphic designer/illustrator in a previous career, I have always had an interest in creating imagery, prints, illustrations, posters and publications using digital processes. This interest has led me to some fascinating explorations in the field of digitally created fabrics and textiles. I have uploaded my new digitally designed fabric collection, "Celebratory Fireworks", to this blog.

There are five color-ways in the "Celebratory Fireworks" collection that are available for purchase - email me at Marie-Therese.


"Celebratory Fireworks"- A New Collection of Digitally Designed Fabrics
The bright, bold and beautiful "Celebratory Fireworks" collection of digitally designed fabrics is a unique series of contemporary fabric designs which celebrate the intense colors of night time fireworks.

The imagery has been created from an original dyed and printed work using disperse dyes on a synthetic substrate. Techniques included hand painting, silk screening and mono printing. The imagery was then scanned and digitally reworked in Photoshop to create a superb complimentary colorways suite. The colors have been sensitively and painstakingly created to encompass the striking display of colored lights and patterns which are associated with being part of a celebration. The design employs the mirror repeat pattern technique.

These spectacular, contemporary and vivid designs can be used for interior design, clothing items and other decorative purposes. There are five color-ways in the "Celebratory Fireworks" collection that are available for purchase. Each individual fabric color has been designed so that the colors compliment each other when used together – that is, two or more as colorways/design features.

The printed designs are available in the following natural fibres from Spoonflower - basic cotton ultra, Kona® cotton ultra, cotton poplin ultra, light weight cotton twill, cotton spandex jersey, linen cotton canvas ultra, organic cotton knit ultra, organic cotton sateen ultra, heavy cotton twill and silky crepe de chine. The printed designs are also available in the following Spoonflower polyester range of fabrics - satin, performance pique, poly crepe de chine, silky faille, performance knit, modern jersey, fleece, minky, sport lycra, eco canvas and faux suede. Fabric widths vary from 40" (102 cm), 42" (107 cm), 54" (137 cm), 56" (142 cm), and 58" (147 cm) depending on the chosen fabric. The designs are also available to use as self-adhesive wallpaper and giftwrap paper. See Spoonflower Fabrics for more information.

There is no minimum order and the printed fabrics range from a test swatch (8" x 8" or 20 cm x 20 cm) to a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 cm x 46 cm) or to whatever your yardage requirements may be.

These fabric designs can be used for wearable art, accessories, furnishing and interior design projects. If you would like to purchase fabric lengths from my "Celebratory Fireworks" collection please email me for pricing and/or any other information.

My "Celebratory Fireworks" collection - for wearable art, accessories, interior and other decorative design projects - are shown below. Each work in the collection below shows a swatch (8" x 8" or 20 cm x 20 cm) view of the printed fabric design, a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 x 46 cm) view of the printed fabric design and a one yard length (36" or 91.5 cm) view of the printed fabric design.

There are also additional images of the fabric designs which have been crafted into tea towels, throw pillows, chairs and placemats by Spoonflower’s sister company ‘Roostery: Where Indie Design & Home Décor Meet’.

To view more please click the following url - My Digital Fabric Collections@Spoonflower

Celebratory Fireworks 1 in hot pink and lime colorway (swatch).

Celebratory Fireworks 1 in hot pink and lime colorway (fat quarter).

Celebratory Fireworks 1 in hot pink and lime colorway (one yard).

Celebratory Fireworks 1 in hot pink and lime colorway tea towels.
Orphington linen tea towels (set of two) crafted by Spoonflower’s sister company ‘Roostery: Where Indie Design & Home Décor Meet.’

Celebratory Fireworks 2 in lime and violet-blue colorway (swatch).

Celebratory Fireworks 2 in lime and violet-blue colorway (fat quarter).

Celebratory Fireworks 2 in lime and violet-blue colorway (one yard).

Celebratory Fireworks 2 in lime and violet-blue colorway throw pillow.
Catalan square throw pillow 18" x 18" crafted by Spoonflower’s sister company ‘Roostery: Where Indie Design & Home Décor Meet’.

Celebratory Fireworks 3 in hot pink, lime and violet-blue colorway (swatch).

Celebratory Fireworks 3 in hot pink, lime and violet-blue colorway (fat quarter).

Celebratory Fireworks 3 in hot pink, lime and violet-blue colorway (one yard).

Celebratory Fireworks 3 in hot pink, lime and violet-blue colorway throw pillow.
Catalan square throw pillow 18" x 18" crafted by Spoonflower’s sister company ‘Roostery: Where Indie Design & Home Décor Meet’.

Celebratory Fireworks 4 in cobalt blue, black and red colorway (swatch).

Celebratory Fireworks 4 in cobalt blue, black and red colorway (fat quarter).

Celebratory Fireworks 4 in cobalt blue, black and red colorway (one yard).

Celebratory Fireworks 4 in cobalt blue, black and red colorway chair.
Maran Slipper chair crafted by Spoonflower’s sister company ‘Roostery: Where Indie Design & Home Décor Meet’.

Celebratory Fireworks 5 in cyan, hot pink and red colorway (swatch).

Celebratory Fireworks 5 in cyan, hot pink and red colorway (fat quarter).

Celebratory Fireworks 5 in cyan, hot pink and red colorway (one yard).

Celebratory Fireworks 5 in cyan, hot pink and red colorway placemats.
Lamona cloth placemats (set of four) crafted by Spoonflower’s sister company ‘Roostery: Where Indie Design & Home Décor Meet’.

Saturday, August 5, 2017

Pile Fabrics[1] - General
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This is the sixty-seventh post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Knitting
Hosiery
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated in order to better inform your art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!


Introduction
The next five posts in this series will be on pile fabrics, namely: General, Woven, Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile, Knitted, and Flocked Pile and Other Pile Constructions.

Pile Fabrics – General[1]
Pile fabrics are three-dimensional fabrics that have yarns or fibers forming a dense cover of the ground fabric.

High pile fabrics.

Pile fabrics can be both functional and beautiful. In apparel fabrics, a high pile is used to give warmth in coats and jackets as either the shell or the liner and as the liner for boots and gloves.

Pile jacket.

In household uses, high-count fabrics give durability and beauty in carpets, upholstery, and bedspreads. In towels and washcloths, low-twist yarns give absorbency. Other uses for pile fabrics are stuffed toys, wigs, paint rollers, buffing and polishing cloths, and decubicare pads for bed-ridden patients.

Some carpet piles are denser than others.

Interesting fabric effects can be achieved by use of cut and uncut pile combinations, pile of various heights, high- and low-twist yarn combinations, areas of pile on a flat surface; printing, curling, crushing or forcing pile into position other than upright.

Fabrics in which the floats are cut are called cut pile fabrics. Velvet is a cut pile fabric.

Fabrics in which the pile is not cut are known as uncut pile. Terrycloth is an uncut pile fabric.

Velveteen is also a cut pile fabric.

Corduroy is also a cut pile fabric.
Note: Fabric in which an extra set of filling yarns is used is called a filling-pile fabric. Velveteen and corduroy are examples of filling-pile fabrics. Hand-woven cut and uncut pile carpets and rugs are also examples of filling-pile fabrics.

In pile fabrics, the pile wears out first but a durable base structure is necessary in order to have a satisfactory pile. Close weaves increases resistance of a looped-pile to snagging and of a cut-pile to shedding and pulling out. A dense pile will stand erect, resist crushing and give better cover.

A modern luxurious soft dense pile - thick cream beige oatmeal shaggy rug.

Care must be taken in washing and ironing to keep the pile erect. Cut-pile fabrics usually look better if dry-cleaned, but they can be washed if the laundry procedures are suited to the fiber content. All pile fabrics are softer and less wrinkled if tumble-dried or line-dried on a breezy day. Minimum or no pressure and a steam iron should be used to remove in removing wrinkles. Flattening of the pile causes the fabric to appear lighter in color. Many pile fabrics are pressed in finishing so the pile slants to give an up and down. Garments should be cut so that the pile is directed up (see figure below).

Pile should be directed up.

The fabric looks richer and deeper in color as one looks into the pile. However, it is not as important that the pile be directed up as it is that the pieces of a garment all be cut with the pile going in the same direction. Otherwise, light is reflected differently and it looks as if two different colors were used in the garment. The direction of the pile can be determined by running the hand over the fabric.

Pile fabrics can be made by several different methods. These are presented and compared briefly in the table below.

Some methods in making pile fabrics.


Reference:
[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).