Saturday, March 31, 2012

The Art of Jenny Kee
Wearable Art



Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
Jenny Kee was born in Sydney in 1947 with an unusual Australian mixed heritage for those times - her mother was of Anglo-Saxon and Italian decent and her father was Chinese. In 2012 such a melded heritage in Australia is far more commonplace. She wrote her autobiography – A Big Life[1] - in 2006.

Jenny grew up in Bondi (Sydney) with a younger sister, Lizzie, and an older brother, Anthony. In the 1950s she attended Bondi Beach Public School. Jenny started doing a dress designing course at East Sydney Technical School in 1963 [2]: “… 'cause that's what I wanted to be - a [fashion] designer” . She was in reality doing a dress making course (practice only) rather than a dress-designing course (concept put into practice) and so she only lasted a year. Moreover, she wanted to be in the midst of a youth scene rather than be with dress makers.

Jenny Kee.
Courtesy of reference[2].

1964 was a seminal year for most Australian teenagers in the 60s. The Beatles had captivated the world in the early 60s – with their music, their humor and their art. In 1964 they had not reached the zenith of their musicality or influence, but because of Australian music promoter Kenn Brodziak's foresight, the Beatles were contracted to give numerous concerts in Australia on the cusp of their rise to fame.

Jenny was determined to meet them, which resulted in one night with John Lennon that changed her life forever. Jenny travelled to England and worked at Biba, which was “the” boutique in London at that time.

In London, Jenny discovered the Chelsea Antique Market that later she viewed as: “…my university of fashion and life”. Her life in London reflected the times since [3]: “For the first few years I was very fuelled with a lot of sex, drugs and rock'n'roll and pop stars coming out of every corner. So, from that heavy sort of, pop world, and sort of, being very wild sexually, I just had enough at a certain point and I just wanted to meet someone and fall in love”. Jenny met Michael, an Australian artist. For the first time, she felt genuinely adored and loved and so started developing self-confidence.

By the early 70s, London was no longer the youth vanguard in music, fashion and the arts. San Francisco had arrested the attention and life style of the youth. The Italian fashion houses were imbued with a new wave of designers that etched out future directions that stemmed from the youth revolution. The arts were once again dominated by New York. In 1973 Jenny Kee and her husband returned to Australia. At this time a new exciting and optimistic political framework was in play, and so they stayed. Six months later she opened a shop, Flamingo Park, which modelled itself on the vintage and retro fashion experience she had in London. Just before she opened Flamingo Park, Jenny met Linda Jackson - another turning point in her life[3]. Her friendship with Linda bought her back to the roots of her passion, namely wearable art.

Jenny Kee had always been conscious of wearable art. Her mother bought her Charles Jourdan shoes when she was 12-13 years old. Both would often roam all over Sydney, finding clothes or the fabrics that Jenny Kee wanted [2]. She had a dressmaker, who made clothes to her own designs[2]. Jenny also came from a background of fashion since her Aunt - Una - had worked for Madame Pellier, making silk blouses in the 1920s that were selling for 100 pounds (the Australian currency at the time)[3].

Jenny Kee's mentor was Vern Lambert from Melbourne (Australia), who had no formal fashion training, but was as knowledgeable as any professor of fashion. He taught her the detail of how something was stitched - why it might have been so in the context of its era[3]. Linda Jackson and Jenny Kee travelled to Milan, New York and the Paris fashion houses[2]. She was the first Sydney-sider to ever be in “Italian Vogue”[2].

As her husband was leaving Australia, another turning point occurred in her life – Jenny met Danton Hughes (his father was Robert Hughes - an Australian who worked in New York as an art critic). A passionate relationship lasted eleven years with Danton - until his untimely death[2]. He was for her a most creative designer.

Australia has so little moisture in its atmosphere that UV light is not effectively mitigated, resulting in clear, sharp, brash colors and images that are embedded in its soil (red ochre), burnt into its grass (yellow greens), radiated from its atmosphere (deep blues), and stitched in the memories of its people. Consequently, Jenny Kee's designs are quintessential Australian with motifs such as native animals (e.g. koalas), native plants (e.g. waratahs and black boys), and gem stones such as opals. She was also influenced by its first peoples - the Australian Aboriginals and their heritage, that fills this land of ours.

Jenny Kee's colors reflect the physical and psychological landscapes of its peoples. Her colors are bold and vibrant, reflecting the freshness and vibrancy of a newly awakening continent that is boldly striving forward, unaware of past shackles, unaware of structured or forced or unnatural boundaries. Her color palette is often compared to Australian artists Ken Done, but actually it reflects her own melded Australian heritage and her world-wide experiences.

Jenny Kee's sweaters were worn by Lady (and then Princess) Di, Barry Humphries, and Olivia Newton-John (just to name a few!)[3] Her opal prints arrested international attention, where it caught the attention of Italian "Vogue" and also Karl Lagerfeld. The opal print went into "Vanity" magazine. Lagerfeld saw it there, and then he said, "That will be my print" for the first designer range that he was doing with Chanel. The latter had 64 of her garments coming down his cat walk[3].

Jenny's designs are world-renowned, exhibited at such places as the Art Gallery of NSW, the Australian National Gallery, Sydney's Powerhouse Museum, London's Victoria and Albert Museum and the Marimura Museum in Tokyo.


The Wearable Art Of Jenny Kee

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].


References:
[1] Jenny Kee, A Big Life, Latern, Sydney (2006). ISBN 192098934X.

[2] "Talking Heads" (ABC programme).

[3] "Sunday Arts" (ABC programme).

[4] Australian Fashion Design, Elina Mackay Design Pty. Ltd., McMahons Point, Sydney (1985). ISBN 0949708 17 8.

[5] The Great Aussie Fashion, Kevin Weldon and Elina Mackay, McMahons Point Sydney (1984) ISBN 0 949708 11 9.

Saturday, March 24, 2012

“Leaves Transformed”
A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
On this blog spot there are posts that center on my “Wearable Art” (e.g. scarves, digital or analogue created fabric lengths etc.) For your convenience I have listed these posts below.

A Selection of My Scarves
My New Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery
My Fabric Lengths@QSDS
My Fabric Collection:"Oh, Oh Marilyn and Mona!"@Spoonflower
2013 Australian Craft Awards – Finalist
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival: "Urban Artscape" Pashminas
My New Scarves and Fabric Lengths
New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash
AIVA: My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics
Byzantine Glow: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Wall Flower: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Ink Fern: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Celebratory Fireworks


Introduction: Digital Textile Printing
Digital textile printing is often referred to as direct to garment printing (DTG printing). Digital garment printing is a process of printing on textiles and garments using specialized or modified inkjet technology. Inkjet printing on fabric is also possible with an inkjet printer by using fabric sheets with a removable paper backing. Today major inkjet technology manufacturers can offer specialized products designed for direct printing on textiles, not only for sampling but also for bulk production.

Since the early 1990's, inkjet technology and specially developed water-based ink (known as dye-sublimation or disperse direct ink) has offered the possibility of printing directly onto polyester fabric. This is mainly related to visual communication in retail and brand promotion (flags, banners and other point of sales applications). Printing onto nylon and silk can be achieved by using an acid-based ink. Reactive ink is used for cellulose-based fibers, such as cotton and linen. Using inkjet technology in digital textile printing allows for single pieces, mid-run production and even long-run alternatives to screen printed fabric. (Wikipedia).

I have been designing my hand dyed and hand printed fabric lengths using a range of fabrics and multiple surface design techniques. As a graphic designer in a previous career, I have always had an interest in creating imagery, prints and illustrations using digital processes. This interest has led me to some fascinating experimentation in the field of digitally created fabrics and textiles. I have uploaded my new digitally designed fabric collection, "Leaves Transformed", to this blog.

The designs have been created from my personal photographic stock, which have been transformed using painterly tools in a digital format. The colors have been sensitively and painstakingly manipulated to create a superb complimentary color-ways suite. The stunning designs can be used for interior design, clothing items and other decorative purposes. There are six color-ways in the collection that are available for purchase.

The eco-friendly textile printed designs are available in ten natural fabrics including silk crepe de chine, upholstery weight twill, organic cotton sateen, organic cotton knit, linen-cotton canvas, cotton silk, cotton voile, cotton poplin, quilting weight cotton and Kona® Cotton. Fabric widths vary from 40" (102 cm), 42" (107 cm), 54" (137 cm), 56" (142 cm), and 58" (147 cm) depending on the chosen fabric.

There is no minimum order and the printed fabrics range from a test swatch (8" x 8" or 20 cm x 20 cm) to a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 cm x 46 cm) or to whatever your yardage requirements may be.

These fabric lengths can be used for wearable art, accessories, furnishing and interior design projects. If you would like to purchase fabric lengths from my “Leaves Transformed” collection please email me for pricing or for any other information.

Email Marie-Therese


My "Leaves Transformed" Collection - for wearable art and interior design projects
Each work in the collection below shows a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 x 46 cm) view of the printed fabric design and a one yard length (36" or 91.5 cm) view of the printed fabric design.

Leaves Transformed in green color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in green color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-green-multi color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-green-multi color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-purple-green-multi color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-purple-green-multi color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in blue color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in blue color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in purple color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in purple color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-white color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-white color-way (one yard).

Saturday, March 17, 2012

In Pursuit of ArtCloth - MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS)
Technique Based Article - Embellish Magazine



Author: Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
In the late 1990s I started to work with disperse dyes on polyester and synthetic fabrics employing transfer printing techniques. I was captivated by the richness, depth of color and overprinting possibilities that could be achieved using the dyes. Since then I have been actively experimenting with hand printing techniques using disperse dyes on synthetic and polyester fabrics. These experiments have led to one of my new signature techniques that I have developed and termed - MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS). I have been teaching my MSDS technique at international and national conferences/workshops, textile forums, to textile groups and within university courses.

The MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) Technique
The MSDS technique employs disperse dyes and involves hand printing multiple resists and multiple overprinted layers employing numerous color plates, mixed media and low relief plant materials. The completed works are rich in color, light, shade, contrast, movement and depth. The multiple layers also imbue a painterly aesthetic and textural, three-dimensional quality to the finished ArtCloth works. Each print is unique and cannot be replicated.

Sublimation Printing
In sublimation printing, once the dye has been painted on a paper and is dry, the painted side of the paper is placed on top of the fabric surface that is to be dyed. Then heat is applied via an iron or a heat press (under pressure) to the back of the dry, dyed paper. The dye vaporizes from the paper and infuses into the surface of the target fabric. The vapor dye reacts with the target fabric surface and adheres to it via ‘attractive’ forces. The heat of the iron serves a dual purpose: (a) it vaporizes the dye; (b) it assists the dye to infuse into the fabric surface and adhere to it.

My MSDS technique has been published in the March/June 2012, Volume 2, Issue 9 copy of Embellish: The Australian magazine for shibori and more (Artwear Publications). If you would like to have a reference copy, which shows images and text of the technique, it will be available in newsagents in the first week in March until June 2012. It is also available via subscription. There are of course a lot of other great techniques in the issue as well. Note: ArtWear Publications also publish Felt magazine, Yarn magazine and Textile Fibre Forum magazine.

Disclaimer: Marie-Therese Wisniowski, Art Quill Studio, and Art Quill & Co has no financial interest in Embellish or in any of the products mentioned in the article.

Now to whet your appetite, have some fun and have a go!

Scarf printed using the artist’s signature MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) and mixed media resists on polyester.

One stage of the process.
Place your scarlet (mid) disperse dye painted paper plate onto the dyed fabric and flora items, color side down.

Another stage of the process.
Start pressing and overprinting an area of the paper plate with a hot iron being careful not to move the low relief items.

The final stage of the process.
Leave the fabric to cool and then remove the low relief flora items to reveal the finished print.
Note the complexity of the work, the painterly quality, and the three dimensional aspect of the finished ArtCloth.

See this blog site for more examples of disperse dyed ArtCloth works employing my MSDS technique (2010 - September 23rd, 2011 - February 5th, May 7th, June 11th, October 29th and those of my students (2011 - January 22rd and 29th, July 9th, September 17th, October 15th) in the Art Quill Studio blog archives.

Saturday, March 10, 2012

My Voice using Disperse Dyes on Cloth
ArtCloth

Guest Artist: Jennifer Libby Fay

Preamble
This blogspot has a number of posts that highlight the artwork of invited artists. For you convenience I have listed them below:
Lesley Turner
Flora Fascinator
Shirley McKernan


Introduction
I first met Jennifer in 2011 at the Surface Design Association's "Confluence" conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA). Since then I have been delighted to experience her distinctive artistic voice using disperse dyes on cloth.

Jennifer Libby Fay - Guest Artist - at work in her studio lifting cloth.
Kansas City, Missouri (USA).

I love her artwork and so I was pleased that she agreed to be a Guest Artist on this blog spot.


Guest Artist: Jennifer Libby Fay
Artist’s Statement

My work is about transformation, imagination and symbol. Beyond the obvious and immediate meaning of a composition, I am interested in exploring the relationship between art, nature and spirituality. Despite the complexity of my subject matter, my goal is to find peace in a confusing and precarious world; to project a calm, contemplative atmosphere in my work. I enjoy exploring the deeper meaning - the source. I hope to engage your eyes, inspire your passion, and take you on a visual expedition into new territory.

Process
As a small child I received a box of silk brocade fabric swatches from my grandmother—multicolored iridescent squares, pinked around the edges. I suppose it was part of her mission to teach me to sew. Girls were expected to do that in her day. Little did she know the spell she had cast. I sorted, stacked and arranged those jewel-like bits every day, captivated by their beauty.

Although I could not have articulated it then, I was experiencing a strange and powerful phenomenon—the capacity that textiles have to stir our souls and capture our hearts. Don’t believe me? I have two words for you: fashion industry. Oh, and don’t forget bedsheets, kitchen towels and throw pillows. Or maybe you would prefer kilims, tapestries and kente cloth.

Cloth, sensuous silk, crisp linen, warm wool, is part of what makes being a human being pleasurable, like delicious food or great sex.

Or maybe it’s just me?

I make art on fabric because it pleases me, speaks to me, but ultimately fabric is the substrate and not the art itself.

I use many surface design techniques to achieve the marks on the fabric, and primarily disperse dyes, but these techniques are not the art itself.

For me making art is about exploring and expressing. I begin with an idea and then build on it by both thinking and doing. If I am working on a body of work for an exhibition, the process starts with a theme. I can’t honestly say where the first thought comes from. It feels like a nudge from the universe, from God, from my unconscious, even the collective unconscious? I don’t know. What I do know is that if I listen for the clues they will guide me.

Then, I research. I read what I can find on the subject. If I know someone who has expertise or experience in a related area I will seek them out. I journal, watch movies, do whatever I can to immerse myself in the concept. I try to remain open and nonjudgmental during this process. I believe in “take what you need and leave the rest.” That means I give myself permission to retain only what is meaningful to me.

This is a highly personal process, which can feel self-indulgent at times, but because I believe that art explores the deeper meaning of life and then symbolizes the essence on a personal and universal level, I think it is important to remain true to oneself. I find my work resonates with others more readily if I am working on a deeper level. I know that sounds strange, the more personal I get, the more others relate, but I think this is true in all the arts. Like when a musician writes a song about breaking up with her boyfriend and then thousands of individuals listen to it and are moved. Personal and universal.

Simultaneously I am working in the studio. Each day before I begin, I concentrate on my theme by journaling or meditation, I hold the intention (theme) in my mind, and then I start working by slowly exploring where it takes me. Using this process it is my hope to create a cohesive body of work—each piece a reflection on the overall theme.

Currently I am developing work for a solo exhibition, Rubicon, May 2nd - June 1st, at the Arts Center of the Ozarks in Springdale Arkansas. Rubicon, Wikipedia will tell you, is a shallow river in northeastern Italy whose name comes from the Latin word rubico, which comes from the adjective rubeus, which means red. You may have heard the figure of speech, “Crossing the Rubicon” —it means to pass a point of no return.

So these days you will find me in my studio, up to my elbows in red dye and wondering if I’ve passed the point of no return.


My ArtCloth

Autumn Etude
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 21 x 14 inches.

Bloom, Where Are You Planted.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22 x 23 inches.

Sunshine, Sunshine.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22 x 23 inches.

Winds Of Change.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 20.5 x 20.5 inches.

Petal Love.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 12 x 12 inches.

Sunday Blessing.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 15 x 15 inches.

Tender Truth.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Tumbling Vine No. 1.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Tumbling Vine No. 2.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Elemental.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.


Biography
Jennifer Libby Fay worked as a graphic and product design entrepreneur on the West Coast, applying her aesthetic sensibility to create effective visual communications and useful objects for the home. An accomplished handweaver and fiber artist, Fay now focuses primarily on textile surface design and multiple dying techniques, embellishment and fabric manipulation. Fay's work has been shown in select exhibitions in California, Washington State and Arkansas. She was recently named an “Arkansas Women to Watch” artist by the National Museum of Women in the Arts Arkansas State Committee. Fay’s colorful abstract and modern textiles have been well received, winning several awards and finding homes with many new collectors.

Saturday, March 3, 2012

Glossary of Terms
Edition 5.0[1-29]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
There are currently six data bases on this blogspot, namely: Glossary of Terms; Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff; A Fashion Data Base; Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins; the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and lastly, the Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements.

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and the Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated. These Glossaries will be updated in the future to incorporate more definitions that we should be aware of in our art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!


Introduction
It used to begin with just a dictionary, then thesaurus, and before too long perhaps even an encyclopedia - all bound and proudly standing on your bookshelf. Sooner or later as you gathered technical tomes, with extensive glossaries, you always wished that you could combine the glossaries into one super compendium that reflected your interest. Unfortunately, Blogger have got size restrictions and so I had to create well focussed glossaries, rather than a single all-encompassing one.

I started my own glossary of terms several decades before Wikipedia. Initially, Wikipedia was only as technically correct as its contributors - and that, in some cases was found to be wanting. Then in its second incarnation, they required their editors to list sources, encouraged their readership to challenge incorrect entries, created dialogues in order to eventually move to agreed definition(s) or description(s). It has become a great resource – a one-stop shop for unpacking definitions. What is more - it is fast and efficient.



How good is it in defining terms used in dyeing, fabrics and textiles? Not bad at all! However, there are some terms you cannot find, some fabrics that are not listed and some dye processes poorly worded. For example, the difference between two natural dyes such as substantive and adjective dyes is that one does not require a mordant whereas the other does. Wikipedia does not even have an entry for “substantive dyes” and so it cannot make clear the difference between them.

What Wikipedia also does not let you do is - browse. Search algorithms are getting smarter on that score. Just Google a word or a phrase! However, when you look up "Kersey" in Wikipedia you do not see "Kasha" (which is defined as: “A type of flannel that has black and colored fibers in the filling yarns.”) Serendipity sometimes works wonders. “Ah, I have often wondered what was Kasha - thanks Kersey!” That is why some Emeritus Professors lament a digitized world - they see serendipity fast disappearing in a manically ordered information systems. A little bit of serendipity, they say, is the basis of some great discoveries.

The first week of every month will give an overview of some area which underpins the art practice of dyeing or printing on cloth. The intention is to present small parcels of knowledge, which will be understood by novices, who may wish to enter this new continent of art called ArtCloth or dabble in the traditional fine-art prints on paper.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's ArtCloth Work Titled - Entropy (Detailed View).
Techniques: Multiple discharge processes, silkscreened, stenciled and mono printed employing gels, transparent, opaque and metallic paints on rayon.
Size: 110 cm (width) x 320 cm (length).

The references - that were invaluable in this compilation - are given at the end of the glossary. All errors are mine. Enjoy!

Marie-Therese.


Glossary of Terms

AA: abbr. Author's Alteration.

Abstract Expressionism: A style of painting (mainly centered in USA in the 1950s and 1960s, emphasizing spontaneous execution, large brushing gestures, bursts of muscular energy, and non-representational imagery (see Margo Lewers on this blog spot).

Abstraction: The essential form after superficial or changeable features have been taken away; sometimes used (incorrectly) to mean any image that does not resemble its model reality.

AC: abbr. Author's Correction.

Acetone: A solvent. One of its uses is to remove rosin from metal.

Acetylate: To introduce an acetyl group (CH3CO-) into an organic compound. In textile chemistry this may be due to the reaction between a hydroxyl group(s) (-OH) with acetic acid and/or acetic anhydride.

Acid: When dissolved in water, an acid is a proton donor; on the pH scale, it has a pH lower than 7. Rainwater, sourced from the ocean, is slightly acidic with a pH ca. 5.0 - 5.6.

Acid Free: Material and paper without acidity; also termed "pH neutral".

Against The Grain: Folding or marking paper at right angles to the grain.

Agate: (USA) Type size of 5.5 points.

Aging: Variety of techniques for simulating the effect of time and wear on new paint, wood or plasterwork.

Aggregate: The coarse or inert ingredients which are mixed with cement in the making of concrete.

a la Poupee Inking: In color printing, the use of poupee (a rag-stamp, a “doll”, a “puppet” in French) to ink parts of the plate, block, or stone separately. This approach is an alternative to printing multiple plates, blocks, or stones, each inked in only one color and registered on one sheet of paper.

Alcohol: Organic compounds containing one or more -OH groups.

Alkali (Base): When dissolved in water, a base is a hydroxide anion (OH-) donor. On the pH scale, its pH is greater than 7. For example, the lilac plant prefers soil that is slightly basic (pH 7.1 - 8.0).

Amide Group: It has the chemical formula -CONH-. When found in nylon polymers it is called an amide group; when found in wool polymers it is called the peptide group.

Amino Goup: A radical with the chemical formula -NH2. This group is found in amino acids.

Amino Acid: A building block of proteins. There are approximately 22 amino acids available for protein construction. Amino acids contain a basic amino group and a carboxylic acid group.

Ammonia: Ammonia is a colorless gas. However, the public has incorrectly associated the name with ammonium hydroxide (which is the aqueous solution of ammonia). Hence in the latter form, it is often used as a cleaning agent and also in natural dyes as an additive when fermenting orchil-yielding umbilicate lichens. An alkali, it used sparingly in dyebaths, otherwise copious use of it will impair the quality of the fiber. A small amount added to a yellow bath (such as goldenrod) will result in a yellow-green color.

Anangu: An Australian aboriginal Pitjantatjara word meaning people; it may be used in a general way to mean "Aboriginal person" or more usually to denote a person from the Western Desert region (Australia).

Angstrom: 10-10 of a meter.

Aniline: Oily liquid from a nitro-benzene base used in preparing dyes and aniline ink, a volatile, quick drying printing ink.

Anion: A negative charge carrier.

Antistatic Agent: A polar or a small charge molecule that is added to the fiber in order to negate its static electric charge.

Aquamanile: Secular or ecclesiastic pouring vessel for hand-washing, often in the form of an animal figure.

Aquarelle: Extremely high quality paper.

Aquatint: A type of etching in which acid-resistant resin granules are sifted on to a heated plate. When the plate is immersed in acid, the acid etches around the granules adhering to the plate, thus producing a grainy tone when the plate is inked and printed. The value of the tones in aquatint is controlled by the size of the resin grains and the length of immersion.

Aramid: A high strength and/or flame resistant polyamide that contains aromatic components.

Arcade: A series of arches carried on columns. When the columns and arches are fixed against a wall, this is known as blind arcade.

Archival: Long term stability and resistance of a material to ageing; generally, it also described by being an acid-free material.

Archival Paper: Paper that resists brown spots and yellowing.

Aromatic: A compound containing a benzene ring system.

Artificial Light: Any light produced by incandescence, fluorescence, phosphorescence or other means than natural radiation.

Aspect Ratio: A term used in computer graphics to denote the ratio of width to height in a figure or letter.

Atom: The smallest particle of an element.

ATSIC: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission.

Auteur Theory: The view that the artistic quality of a motion picture is mainly the responsibility of the film director, who is the real cinema “artist”.

Autolithography: Printing from an image hand drawn directly on a lithographic stone or plate.

Auxochrome: A polar group or a negative atom, which intensifies the absorption of light by a dye. In some cases it will alter the hue of the dye.

Basilica: Originally a Roman building used as a court of law or for public meetings; evolved under Christianity into the Church, building with a long, narrow nave, side aisles, an apse at the end formerly occupied by the judge or emperor’s representative.

Baume Scale (abbr. Be): A scale of specific gravity of liquids.

Biomorphic: Having the qualities of living form.

Blanket: Sheet of felted wool used to distribute pressure evenly on the printed paper, when the "sandwich" of the press bed, inked plate, printing paper and three blankets passes between the etching press rollers.

Bleed: The part of an image that extends beyond the trim marks on a page.

Bleed Edge: A printed image that comes to the edge of the paper, having no border.

Blind Emboss: To make an impression without foil or ink.

Blinding: It is a poor surface condition on an apparently sound printing plate that causes a sub-standard image.

Bockingford: Economical paper, with an interesting texture, caused by the pressure applied by woolen blankets in a cylinder mould machine.

Bolt End: Refers to the care instruction labels that are found at the end of a bolt of fabric.

Bond: The linkage between atoms in a molecule and between molecules and atoms in a crystal. It is also referred to as a chemical bond.

Border: Design around the edge of a panel, wall or floor. It may be stencilled, printed or painted free hand.

Brayer: Rubber faced roller with a handle designed to spread ink on a relief printing surface.

Bridging: The ability of a coating to span gaps between the threads of the mesh to form a stencil: over-heavy coatings of a screen filler applied during a reversal process can also be described as "bridging" when they form an impenetrable film over painting fluid.

British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.): (i) When these letters follow the name of a material they indicate that the material conforms to the specifications of the British Pharmacopoeia, and that it is approved for use in medicinal preparations. This grade is usually below C.P. grade in absolute chemical purity, but of more than adequate purity for average technical use. Corresponds to the American U.S.P.; (ii) In chemistry it is an abbreviation for boiling point.

Buffer Solution: Any solution that is formulated to a specific pH and that has the ability to oppose any pH change by the small addition of acids or bases. For example, human blood is buffered at a neutral pH (i.e. pH 7).

Buffing: The final polishing of a reproduction plate before etching.

Burnisher: A smooth curve metal tool used for removing rough spots from printing plates.

Butcher Paper: Low grade paper that is often used as an absorbent in processes such as to wrap up silk prior to steaming.

Butcher Rayon: It is either acetate and rayon blend or 100% rayon. It is a crash-like fabric made in various weights - with the heavier weights taken on the appearance of linen.

Cantilever: The free part of a horizontal member that projects into space, seemingly without support, while its internal end is anchored in the main structure.

Carbonizing: The treatment of wool with sulfuric acid in order to destroy any cellulosic contaminants.

Carbon Paper (Stains): (i) Fabric: All; (ii) Method: Work detergent or soap into the stain, rinse. If the stain is still visible, lace a few drops of ammonia on the stain and repeat washing.

Carragheen: The seaweed carragheen, is commonly used as an emulsifier in food, can also be used to thicken the floating bath for marbling techniques.

Cartridge Paper: Cartridge paper comes in several weights (e.g. 130 - 150 g) and is often used to apply paint or dye to it. It is good for collaging or intercutting into other designs, as it is flat and untextured.

Casein: A substance obtained from curled milk, used as an adhesive in the manufacture of coated paper and sometimes as a binder for paint.

Cassone: (plural: cassoni). Italian meaning: “large chest”. Term generally used to refer to decorated Italian wedding chest.

Cast Coated Paper: Art paper with an exceptional glossy, enamel finish.

Catalyst: A chemical that speeds up a reaction, without it being altered by the reaction. In time, side products usually poison its catalytic activity.

Cation: A positive charge carrier.

Cellophane: Transparent cellulose acetate film that is thin and very flexible.

Cellulose: The main constituent of the cell wall of all plants. It is a polymer of glucose (a natural sugar).

Cellulose Acetate: Plastic sheet material, usually transparent or translucent, available clear or colored and with shiny or matt finish. It is used as the basis of artwork and overlays.

Certosina: Geometric patterned inlay of wood, bone, mother of pearl, and metal favoured in north Italian centers such as Venice.

Chalking: A printing fault caused by ink soaking into paper leaving pigment deposited on the surface.

Chemical Affinity: In chemical physics and physical chemistry chemical affinity is an electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species feel an attraction toward each other and so are capable of forming chemical compounds (e.g. electron deficient systems are attracted to electron rich systems). It can also refer to the tendency of an atom or compound to combine by a chemical reaction with atoms or compounds of unlike composition.

Chemical Pulp: Process wood pulp used in high quality printing papers.

Chevet: French term for east end of church with chancel, ambulatory, and radiating chapels.

Chlorine (Stains): (i) Fabric: No treatment for chlorine stains on wool or silk; (ii) Method: Rinse fabric thoroughly with water. Soak for 30 minutes or longer in a solution of 1 teaspoon of sodium thiosulfate to each liter of water (as hot as is safe for the fabric). Bleaching cause by chlorine cannot be removed.

Chop: Embossing or printing stamp applied by hand to finish prints; normally specific to the printer or studio, they identify the provenance of the print.

Clay Plaster: Versatile, natural “breathing” material.

Cloisonne: A means of setting cut stones or enamel between thin metal “walls” which have been fixed to a back-plate.

Collage Blocks: The basic principle of relief printing, in which the design is formed by contrast between positive (raised) areas of a printing block and negative cut-away sections. The blocks are constructed from a range of materials and are assembled on a flat base to form a relief block with different surface levels.

Collage Blocks Equipment: Buttons, wood shavings; pulses, yarn and pasta or other low relief items; PVA adhesive; scissors; craft knives; fabric and/or paper .

Computer Aided Design (CAD): The use of software packages such as Adobe’s Photoshop in order to create designs that can be translated onto fabrics by such companies as Spoonflower.

Computer Graphics: The use of computers to output information in graphic form.

Conjugated Bond Systems: A chemical system of alternating double and single bonds. These systems absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and in certain cases can absorb in the visible region of the light spectrum.

Contact Screen: A half tone screen made on a film base, which has a graded dot pattern. It is used in direct contact with a film or plate to obtain a halftone negative from a continuous tone original. They provide better definition than the conventional glass screen.

Contrapposto: A figural pose in which one part of the body turns or twists away from another, usually in an unsymmetrical pose characteristic of classical Greek and Roman figure sculpture, in which the weight is carried by one leg while the other is relaxed. This system of figural articulation was revived and much exploited during the Italian Renaissance.

Controlling Dimension: The width of height of an image taken as the basis for enlargement or reduction.

Conversion Factors: (i)Area - 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2; (ii) Volume - 1 gallon(US) = 3.785 litres (l); 1 cubic foot = 28.317 litres; (iii) Pressure - 1 atmosphere = 101 325 Pa; 1 milli-meter (mm) of mercury ( or mm Hg) = 133.32 Pa; (iv) Energy - 1 erg = 10-7 Joules (J); 1 calorie = 4.184 J; (v) Temperature - Centigrade to Fahrenheit: oF = oC (9/5) + 32; Fahrenheit to Centigrade: oC = (oF -32)x(5/9); (vi) Length - 1 mile = 1.609 x 103 meters; 1 yard = 0.9144 meter; 1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 foot = 12 inches = 30.48 cm; (vii) 1 pound (lb) = 0.4536 kg or 453.4 g; 1 ounce (oz) = 28.35 g; 1 kg = (1/0.4536) lb = 2.2046 lb.

Coplanar: In one plane. A coplanar molecule is one where all atoms are contained in one plane.

Copolymer: A polymer consisting of two or more different monomers.

Corner Marks: The marks on a printed sheet acting as trim marks, and also sometimes as register marks.

Cotman: An inexpensive grainy paper and a good alternative to cartridge and expensive watercolor papers.

Counterproofing: In printmaking, taking an impression from another impression before the ink has dried. This allows the artist to see the image in the same direction it was drawn in order to correct mistakes, or to achieve visual effects made possible by printing the image twice.

Covalent Bond: A chemical bond in which electrons are shared between the atoms.

Crackleglaze: See craquelure.

Craquelure: Decorative glaze developed in the eighteenth century France to reproduce the fine network of cracks on Eastern lacquer work and pottery. Also known as crackleglaze.

Crayon Manner: An eighteenth century intaglio process (also called “chalk” manner) that employed spiked wheels (roulettes) to established grainy areas on an etching ground. The etched areas imitated chalk (crayon in French) marks when printed. Crayon manner was used primarily to reproduce sanguine chalk drawings popular in the eighteenth century.

Creep: Effect when a printed mark spreads on the substrate.

Creole: Born or assimilated into the Caribbean region.

Crop, Cropmark: The part of an image that is discarded after it has been trimmed.

Crow Quill: A term referring to a very fine pen, derived from the original use of a cut crow's quill.

Dado: Lower part of the room wall when it is faced or colored differently from the upper part.

Daguerreotype: An early photographic process (1839) named after L. Daguerre, employing silver salts, iodine and mercury vapour in developing a picture.

Decal: A printed transfer image.

Deckle: The ragged edge on hand-made paper.

Decoupage: Method of decorating walls and objects with paper cut-outs protected by a clear glaze or vanish.

Degrease: The process of removing oil from screen mesh; new screens require degreasing before use, although degreasing may occasionally be needed throughout a screen's life.

Degree of Polymerization: The average number of monomer units in a polymer chain. More specifically, it is the average molecular weight.

Density: Density is equal to mass divided by volume and so in the SI system has units of kg/m3 or g/cm3. The density of a substance varies at different temperatures (due to volume that changes as temperature changes) and so is quoted at particular temperatures. For the Imperial System - see Conversion Factors.

Detergent: A molecule with both polar or highly charge segments and a long non-polar chain, which therefore has both hydrophilic (water loving) and oleophilic (strong affinity for oils) character; it is used to remove or break up grease or oil and to increase wettability.

Develop: To treat with an agent so that color appears.

Devonshire Clay: China clay.

Diazo: abbr. Diazonium. A method of reproducing in limited quantities from a transparent or translucent original on paper, cloth or film. the image is exposed onto a light-sensitive coating of diazo salts and dyestuff and the print may be blue, black or another color.

Die: An intaglio engraved stamp used for impressing a design.

Die-Stamping: A process of impressing the form or ornament of a manufactured object by means of a metal stamp (die).

Digital Positive: Positive created and output using a computer.

Dingbat: (USA) A general term for ornaments.

Dink: A half moon-shaped dent in a paper sheet caused by careless handling.

Direct Crimping: For direct crimping, apply the caustic soda solution directly to the surface of the cloth.

Direct Stencil: A stencil created by applying a block-out medium directly to the silk screen.

Dispersion Force: It is a force that is caused by an induced dipole – induce dipole contribution to more general force called the intermolecular force. That is, a dispersion force is when one neutral molecule (dye) can induce a dipole (negative and positive charges separated within it) in another neutral molecule (fiber) and vice-versa, thus causing a cohesive interaction between the two. It is the second strongest force between neutral molecules after the hydrogen bond.

Documentary: A photographic, motion picture or television presentation of not posed or uncontrived events; a style in art that seems to report actual events.

Dot Etching: A method of reducing the size of halftone dots by chemical action in processing, to alter the tonal values of an image.

Drypoint: An intaglio printmaking technique in which a needle is used to scratch a plate, typically copper. The ink rests in the grooves until the plate in pressed into the paper.

Drypoint Equipment: Combined drypoint needle and burnisher drypoint needle; combined scraper and burnisher; zinc and copper plates.

Dry Transfer Lettering: Characters transferred to a page by rubbing them off the back of a sheet.

Drywall: Plaster substitute such as plasterboard.

Durometer: The term describing the level of hardness of a squeegee blade.

Edition: The total number of identical, original prints made from one image, number sequentially and signed by the artist.

Electrolyte: A compound, which in a water solution (i.e. aqueous solution) or in a molten state, conducts an electric current and is simultaneously decomposed into ions; compounds which dissociate into ions and/or radicals in a water solution.

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum: The complete range of wavelengths that constitute light.

Electronegative: A property of atoms, ions or molecules that have a strong attraction toward electrons (e.g. fluorine or chlorine).

Electroplating: A process of coating an object with a thin layer of chromium, silver etc., by means of electrolysis (the chemical reaction produced by passing an electric current through an electrolyte).

Electropositive: A property of atoms, ions or molecules in which they readily give up electrons (e.g. lithium as in the lithium battery).

Electrotype: A duplicate of a slate or block (especially a wood-graving block) produced by the use of electrolysis to coat a mould of the block with a thin layer metal; invented in 1839, the electrotype supplanted the stereotype.

em: A unit of linear measurement, 12 points or 4.5 mm.

Emulsion: Suspension of an oil in water.

en: A measurement half the width of em, used in casting off.

Endothermic: Describes a chemical process, such as a reaction, that absorbs heat in order for it to occur.

Energy: The capacity to do work. There are various form of energy: electrical, mechanical, heat, nuclear, chemical, potential, kinetic, translational, rotational and vibrational etc.

Engine Sizing: A method of sizing paper by the addition of emulsified resin to clean paper pulp.

Engraving: An intaglio printmaking technique in which a wedge-shaped implement called burin is pushed with considerable force, carving a deep and regular groove into a plate, typically copper, into which the ink is pushed and held until printing. In summary, the design or lettering etched on a plate or block and also the print taken from such a plate.

Entablature: The portion of a classical building fa├žade between its column capitals and its roof; it contains the architrave, frieze, and cornice.

Entasis: A slight convexity or swelling in the shaft of a classical column; it counteracts the optical effect whereby perfectly straight columns seem to be narrower in the center.

Estampes Galantes: French: “gallant or gay prints”. Eighteenth century reproductive prints (usually combinations of etching and engraving) after the Rococo painters. They were generally amorous or erotic in their subject-matter.

Ester: The organic compound formed from a reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid. It has a general formula of, R-COO-R', where R and R' are various chemical groups.

Etching: A metal plate treated with acid and with certain parts protected by the application of a ground. It is also a print taken from the etch plate.

Etching Equipment: Hard ground; soft ground; stopping-out varnish; liquid hard ground; zinc and copper plates; leather-covered dabber; burnisher; etching needle; scraper; feathers for cleaning acid bubbles from plates; clamp for holding plate during smoking.

Etching Press: A press for printing intaglio plates, which are only a few millimetres thick.

Exothermic: Describes a chemical process, such as a reaction, that releases heat in order for it to occur.

Exploded View: Drawing of an object showing its component parts separately but arranged in such a way as to indicate their relationships within the object when assembled.

Fabriano: Easy to work on paper that is durable.

Facsimile: abbr. FAX. An exact reproduction or copy usually associated with reproduction via electronic scanning.

Family: A group of printing types in series with common characteristics in design, but of different weights such as italics, bold etc.

Fashion Boards: Simple body boards lined with good rag paper on one side, and thin paper on the other side to prevent warping.

Filler Stencil: The use of a liquid that is painted directly onto a screen mesh in order to fill parts of a mesh which acts as a resist to the printing process.

Fillet: An embossed line used as a decorative device on a book cover.

Film Former: Any fluid material or ingredient, which when applied over a surface, will set to a solid continuous layer of film and perform the function of a paint vehicle, medium or varnish.

Fisheye: Unwanted open area in a photo-stencil, which prints with the appearance of an eye of a fish.

Fitch: Hog-hair brush suitable for oil work (one type is available for water color work). The five types are round, filbert, long, short and herkomer. Used in many techniques and sometimes as an alternative to household brush.

Flash Point: The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a flame above the solvent will cause the solvent's vapor to ignite. Obviously, the lower the flash point the more readily the solvent's vapor will ignite at room temperature. In general those solvents with a flash point below 21oC are considered the most dangerous, while any solvents with a flash point below 32oC are still considered dangerously flammable. For example, methanol and ethanol have flash points of 11oC and 12oC, respectively. On the other hand butanol has a flash point of 36oC.

Flat Side: Side of a screen frame on which mesh is glued.

Flooding: Overfilling the mesh with printing mixture, usually leading to imperfect printing.

Font: A corruption of "fount". It is a complete supply of a typeface.

Foul Bite: An etching term, which describes the speckles and dots created by unwanted corrosion of the etching plate.

Fractions (Prefix) {Symbol}: 10-1 (deci) {d}; 10-2 (centi) {c}; 10-3 (milli) {m}; 10-6 (micro) {╬╝}; 10-9 (nano) {n}.

Frame: In screen printing, the rectangular suport made of wood across which a screen is stretched.

French Chalk: Talc is commonly sold under this name. It is neither precipitated chalk nor Paris white as its name suggests by its confusing name.

Fringe: A halo seen to surround halftone dots in the early stages of processing.

Frisee: Like a file (see above) except that the metal thread is twisted instead of flat.

Frottis (French): Glaze.

Full Shadow: A heavy outline to a letter or line of type.

Full-Spectrum of Light: Artificial or natural light that contains all wavelengths of visible light.

Gel: A hydrophilic colloids, capable under certain conditions (such as lowering of the temperature) to produce a pseudo-solid (like a jelly) that may be easily deformable.

Gelatin Process: A duplication method, using gelatin as the medium for transferring a carbon image as in gravure printing.

Generic Classification (Chemistry): Classification by chemical nature.

Geodesic: Word invented by R. Buckminister Fuller to describe his basically hemispherical domes, which rely for strength on the geometric grid of thin, straight members in tension and compression; sixty carbon atoms arranged as hexagons and pentagons – similar to a soccer ball – have been named after him and so are one of a family of “fullerines”.

Ghost: Faint stain (often relating to image forms) in screen mesh caused by incorrect cleaning or by certain printing mixtures (e.g. haze).

Glass Transition Temperature of a Polymer: The glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer is an accurate measure of its softness. A polymer that is too soft will lead to a cold flow in an adhesive and pick up dirt in a coating or fabric. A polymer, which is too hard, may crack when stressed or may not be able respond to movements in a fabric. Most polymers in fabrics have a glass transition temperature around room temperature.

Glucose (D form): A common sugar present in many plants and in human blood. It is a constituent of starch, cellulose and sucrose etc. and can be obtained from the latter in the hydrolysis with acids or enzymes.

Glyphic: A typeface originating from carved rather than scripted letters.

Graining: The process by which a lithographic plate is given a moisture-retaining surface. Abrasive powder and either glass or steel marbles are used. Mechanical agitation produces the required surface.

Graphic Art: Also the graphic arts; from the Greek word for drawing and writing. Applied to engraving, etching, woodcut, linocut, lithography; any method of printmaking or communication through line, especially when reproduced in books, magazines, posters and by electronic transmission.

Graphic Design: Design based on or involving two-dimensional processes (e.g. illustration, typography, photography and printing methods etc.)

Grass, Flowers (Stains): (i) Fabric: Washable; (ii) Method: Work soap or detergent into stain, then rinse. If safe for dye, sponge stain with alcohol. Dilute alcohol with 2 parts water for acetate; (iii) Fabric: Non-Washable; (iv) Method: Spot clean as above, using alcohol (if safe for dye) to remove soap from article.

Graticule: A linear grid placed over an image giving reference to points on the image (e.g. lines of latitude and longitude on a map).

Gravure: An intaglio printing process.

Hagiography: The writing of Saints’ lives.

Halftone: Tonal image, which has been broken into a structure of different-sized dots, which print to give the optical illusion of continuous tonal change.

Hand Press: A printing press in which the plate is inked and the paper/cloth is fed and removed by hand.

Hard Dot: A halftone dot in the second or third stage of processing, with good density and sharpness.

Hardness: For main measures of hardness of a material are: resistance to indentation; scratch resistance; damping of a pendulum; flexibility.

Hardness of Water: The property of water conferred by the presence of salts that prevent formation of a lather, with soaps.

Haze: Generalized faint staining of screen mesh caused by photo-stencils, screen filters, printing mixtures, and varnishes (e.g. ghost).

Heat: Energy possessed by a substance in the form of kinetic energy of atoms or in the case of molecules due to their translational, rotational, and vibrational energies.

Hectography: A duplication process based on the use of gelatin plates.

Heterocyclic: Describes organic compounds whose molecules are ring structures, which include atoms of elements other than carbon (C) and hydrogen(H); for example nitrogen (N).

Hieroglyph: An element of language recorded in the form of a pictogram or symbol rather than as a written word.

High Contrast: An image or stencil made with black ink on white paper, or film, having no shading or grey tones.

Highlight: The lightest tones of a photograph, illustration or image.

Holder: The handle for holding the nib of a writing pen.

Honing: A technique of removing image areas from a printing plate by mechanical means.

Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds whose molecules only containing carbon (C) and hydrogen (H).

Hydrofuge: A means of removing moisture; a substance or apparatus that removes moisture.

Hydrogen Bond: It is a linkage between a hydrogen atom (labeled H) in a molecule and another atom (labeled B) either in another molecule or in another part of the same molecule. Hence, has the pictorial form A-H…B (where … represents the hydrogen bond) and A and B are electronegative atoms with A belonging to the same molecule as hydrogen (H) but being covalently bonded to it.

Hydrolysis: The chemical decomposition of a substance by the reaction with water in which water is itself decomposed. Acids and alkalis often catalyze hydrolysis. The destructive effect of hydrolysis upon fiber polymers will also result in the rupture of inter-polymer forces of attraction.

Hydrophilic: Water loving (i.e. completely miscible in water).

Hydrophobic: Water hating (i.e. sparingly soluble in water).

Hygroscopic: The capacity for a chemical compound to uptake water. For example, NaCl (table salt) is extremely hygroscopic and so can dry out atmosphere in a confined area.

ibid: abbr. ibidem, a Latin term meaning "in the same place" used in notes to a publication to repeat a reference.

idem: A Latin term meaning "the same" used as a reference in footnotes.

Illuminate: To decorate manuscript with gold or silver or with brilliant colors or with elaborate designs (scrolls) and miniature pictures.

Imino Group: It has the chemical formula -NH-. The hydrogen atom (H) of this group is known as the imino hydrogen.

Imperial System Of Units: Units defined by the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824. The units of length (inches, foot and miles), mass (ounces and pounds), volume (gallon) and temperature (e.g. Farenheit) has historical rather than scientific significance.

Imprimature: A Latin term meaning "let it be printed". It used to be a statement to show that permission to print a work had been given by the appropriate authority.

Imprint: The printer's imprint is the name of the printer and the place of printing. It is required by law if the paper or book is meant to be published. The publisher's imprint is the name of the publisher with place and date of publication.

Indigenous: Native to a region or locale; naturally produced or born in a specific place.

Indirect Stencil: A stencil created away from the silk screen and then attached prior to printing.

Infra-Red: Not a color name. Denotes those rays which lie beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. Can be experienced as heat. From the Latin infra or under, which in this context has the same meaning as beyond.

Inorganic: Of mineral or non-livinig origin; the opposite to organic. Example of inorganic substances are mineral ores, rocks etc. Examples of inorganic compounds are salts (e.g. sodium chloride - table salt), acids (e.g. sulfuric acid) and mordants (e.g. potassium dichromate).

In Pro: abbr. In proportion. A term used to direct the enlargement or reduction of the original image.

Insulation: Resistance to the passage of heat or electricity.

Intaglio: A jewel or semi-precious stone into which a recessed image has been cut. In printmaking, any of several techniques in which lines are cut or corroded into a plate and which then print positively – the artist’s mark is what appears in the print, rather than the surface the artist left untouched.

Intaglio Printing Equipment: Mixing slab; intaglio inks; palette knife; coarse and fine wiping canvas (scrim); tinned intaglio ink; powder pigment; copperplate oil; blotting paper and tissue; rollers.

Intercutting: A method of combining different paper images is to intercut the images of one design to replace areas of another design.

Intermolecular Forces: Commonly known as van der Waals’ forces (named after a scientist who first investigated the phenomenon), intermolecular forces can be weakly attractive and repulsive and so they operate at close range to be effective. In the case of the attractive force, it arises principally from: ion-ion interactions; ion-dipole interactions; dipole-dipole interactions; dipole-induced dipole interactions etc. It is the principle force that binds a dye to a fiber in hydrophobic fibers.

Internal Sizing: Part of the paper making process, which describes the addition of glue (size) to the paper pulp so that the resulting paper contains a homogeneous mix of size within each sheet, increasing its strength and impermeability of water.

Ion: A carrier (atom or molecule etc.) possessing charge(s).

Ionic: Possessing charge(s).

Ionic Bond: A bond between two ions due to a mutual electrostatic attraction (e.g. table salt is made from the attraction of a positive sodium ion to a negative chlorine ion within a crystal lattice). In the case of dyeing, the mutual attraction generally is between positive centers in the fiber and negative centers in the dye molecule and between negative fiber sites and positive centers in the dye molecule. The dyeing of wool provides a simple example of this.

ISBN: abbr. International Standard Book Number.

ISO: abbr. International Standards Organization.

Isomerism: The existence of two or more compounds that have the same chemical formula but different chemical and physical properties due to different spatial arrangements of the atoms in the molecules. Each compound is called an isomer.

Jamb: The edge of a door or window opening.

Jesse Tree: Tree illustrating Christ’s descent from Jesse.

Jogging: Aligning edges of a stack of paper sheets using vibration.

Joule: Unit of energy (e.g. heat) named after a scientist.

Jukurrpa: Dreaming (in Warlpiri, one of the Aboriginal languages spoken in the Western Desert, Australia).

Justified (of type): Lines of type set so as to fill "measure"; less accurately, but more usefully, lines of type that range visually on both sides.

Keep Standing: Instruction to printer to keep type matter ready for possible reprinting.

Keep Up: Instruction to printer: keep type in caps.

Kelpie: Australian sheep dog breed.

Kelvin Temperature Scale: An absolute temperature scale. The zero point of the scale is the temperature at which a perfect gas would occupy zero volume if it could be cooled indefinitely without becoming a liquid. Absolute zero is -273.16oC. Hence water cools at 0oC or 273.16oK.

Kern: Part of a piece of type sticking out to one side of a body so that it overlaps onto the adjacent piece. See diagram below.


Key: The block or plate containing the main outlines of the design. It acts as a guide for position and registration of the other colors.

Keyline: An outline drawing in artwork that shows the size and position of an illustration or halftone image.

Key Plate: In color printing, that plate which is to print first, providing the key for registering subsequent colors (also called "first color down").

Keystone: The wedge shaped stone in the center of a masonry arch.

Keyword Index (Keyword-from-title Index): One of the significant word or words in the title of a written work by which it may be identified for retrieval, especially from computer memory store.

Kilogram: It is equal to the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at BIPM in Paris, France.

Kinetic Energy: The energy an entity possesses by virtue of its motion. Heating a fiber raises the motion of the fiber via the molecular vibrations of the polymers of the fiber.

Kirda: Among the Walpiri and related Australian Aboriginal desert groups, those with primary, usually patrilineally inherited rights in ceremonies, Dreamings, designs and so on -see kurdanguris.

Kiss Impression: In letterpress, ideal impression whereby the image is rich and well inked, but the paper shows no sign of an embossing effect.

Kitchen Measurements: 1/4 teaspoon (tsp) = 1 milli-litre (ml); 1/2 tsp = 2 ml; 1 tsp = 5 ml. (This illustrates a rough rounding off for 1/4 and 1/2 tsp); 2 tsp = 10 ml; 1 table spoonful (tbsp) = 15 ml; 1/4 cup (standard drinking cup) = 60 ml; 1/3 cup = 70 ml; 1/2 cup = 120 ml; 1 cup = 240 ml; 1 pint (US pt) = 0.473 litres (l); 1 quart (qt) = 1.1 litres (l).

Kookaburra/Laughing Jackass: Australian raucous kingfisher.

Koori: Generic term for the Aboriginal people of the Southern Eastern part of Australia- see also Murri, Nunga, Nyoongar.

Kore: Plural: korae. Greek meaning: “girl”. A Greek statue of a girl or young woman.

Kouros: Plural: kouroi. A Greek statue of a boy or young man.

Kraft Paper: Tough, brown paper used for wrapping.

Kraton: Javanese palace.

Kurdungiurlu: Among the Walpiri and related Australian Aboriginal groups, those with secondary, usually matrilineally inherited rights in ceremonies, Dreamings, graphic designs and so on - see also kirda.

Kurrajong: An Australian evergreen tree.

Kuruwarri: Men's designs and ceremonies (in the Australian Aboriginal Walpiri language).

Kwertengerl: An Anmatymerr word (Australian Aboriginal) meaning the manager of ceremony; this aboriginal language is spoken by many artists in the Utopia region (Australia).

Lake Base: Both blanc fixe and alumina hydrate are given this name.

Lantern: An open cylindrical construction which lets light into the top of a dome.

Lapping Plate: Flat surface such as a thin sheet of steel or old cookie tin used to hold abrasives for smoothing cut surfaces of bottles.

Leader: A group of dots, usually three (...)

Letterpress: A printing process. The image is raised and inked to produce an impression.

Library Congress Number: A reference number given to the American edition of a book and recorded at the Library of Congress. This is a common practice not required by law.

Lift-Grounding Etching: A form of aquatint etching in which an artist paints the design on a plate with sugary liquid. The plate is covered with an acid-resistant varnish and submerged in water, which causes the sugary area to lift off. The exposed parts are then aquatinted and etched. The aquatint ground can be also laid on the plate before the sugar-lift is applied.

Light: (i) Common term for electromagnetic radiation; (ii) The opposite of dark. Principally used to modify generally defined colors such as light blue etc.

Line Block: A printing plate made of zinc or copper consisting of solid areas and lines. It is reproduced directly from a line drawing without tones. It is mounted on a wooden block to type height.

Lining Paper: Plain, flat wallpaper used to line the walls of a room, often over imperfect plaster. It can be painted if first sealed with diluted undercoat.

Linocut: A relief printing surface of linoleum on which the background to the design is cut away with a knife, gouge or engraving tool.

Linocut Equipment: Palette knife and push knife for mixing inks; tap knife for cutting lino; spoon for hand-printing rollers lino; gouges; V-tools; baren, a purpose made tool for hand-printing.

Linoleum Block: Linoleum surfaced block used for block printing. Image to be printed is carved on the surface of the linoleum.

Lintel: The horizontal member of the post and lintel structural device supporting the weight above an opening in a wall such as a door or window etc.

Lithography: A planographic (flat-surfaced) printmaking technique invented by Alois Senefelder in 1798, employing limestone slabs, or alternatively zinc plates, and chemical antagonism of grease and water. An artist draws on the stone with any greasy medium. The stone is “etched” with a mixture of nitric acid and gum arabic to set the image, and then wetted down, inked and printed. In other words, printing from a dampened, flat surface using greasy ink, based on the principle of the mutual repulsion of oil and water.

Lithography Equipment: Lithographic stick ink; lithographic crayons; pencil and graphite sticks; lithographic drawing inks; printing inks; large inking roller; zinc litho plate; expandable sponge.

Loc cit: abbr. loco citato, a Latin term for "in the place named", used as a reference in footnotes.

Logo: abbr. Logotype. A word or image cast as one unit that symbolizes corporations.

Luminescence: Light not associated with heat.

Luminosity: Measure of brightness of a paint or color.

Marbling (Paper): Decorative paper used for binding books, and sometimes the book edges. It is done by dipping the sheet in a bath of color floating on a surface gum. The colors do not mix but can be combined into patterns with the use of a comb, and transfer readily to the paper surface.

Margin: Perimeter of mesh adjacent to the frame of screen: this non-printing area is closed during printing either temporarily or permanently to protect the mesh and to be used as a printing reservoir.

Mask: (i) A material used to block out part of a layout; (ii) A photographic image modified in tone or color.

Masking: (i) Applying a protective layer to a part of a layout in order for it to resist a following process(es); (ii) A technical method of adjusting values of color and tone in a photomechanical reproduction; (iii) Covering a surface to provide a barrier against a layer of paint.

Masking Film: Transparent film in various colors with a plastic backing used to cut stencils for photo-emulsion process.

Masking Paper: In plastic work, the protective paper placed over the surface of a plastic sheet.

Masking Tape: Used to mask out areas, hold on stencils etc.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS): An international standardized form which manufacturers are legally obliged to supply, containing information about materials and chemicals.

Mattoir: In intaglio printmaking, a hand-held instrument with blunt spiked head that achieves tone by stippling the plate.

Measure: The width of a setting, usually measured in pica ems.

Mechanical Tints: Tints consisting of dot or line patterns that can be laid down on artwork before or during reproduction process.

Megaliths: Immense stones such as were used in Stonehenge.

Melange Printing: The printing of carded sliver in a striped pattern to produce subtle color effects in the yarn.

Menhir: A single, uncut, prehistoric megalith.

Mesh: The woven polyester fabric of a screen.

Meter (Metre): It is equal to the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/(299 792 458) of a second.

Methylene Radical: The radical -CH2- , which is found in many fiber polymers.

Methyl Radical: The radical -CH3 , which is derived from methane (CH4). Methyl radicals are found in many dye molecules.

Mezzotint: An intaglio method of printmaking based on tone rather than line, in which the artists works from dark to light. The plate is first scored all over with a rocker (at this stage, the plate would print totally black after inking). Then the scoring is smoothed out in varying degrees to arrive at lighter values. Mezzotint was widely used in England as a reproductive printmaking technique (hence its alternate name - “the English manner”).

Mezzotint Equipment: Coarse mezzotint rocker; fine mezzotint rocker; copper plate; burnisher; curved scraper.

Micron (also Micrometer): 10-6 of a meter.

Minaret: The tall, slender tower attached to a mosque; it has one or more balconies from which the muezzin calls Muslim to prayer.

Minnekastchen: Small love casket term used for northern European boxes decorated with scenes of courtly love, chivalric romance or similar themes.

Mirrored Image: A pattern where the images are mirror reflections of themselves horizontally or vertically, or both at the same time.

Misting: Causes a vapor of droplets, which can easily be inhaled, especially when using a high-pressure hose.

Mock Up: The rough visualization of a publication or packaging design showing size, color, type etc.

Modeling Tool: In foil tooling an instrument with a smooth spoon end used to raise the design.

Module: A standard or unit for measuring and designing; in architecture a device for standardizing the sizes and proportions of building parts and furnishings. See Le Corbusier’s modular.

Mole: Molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams.

Molecule: Molecules are composed of atoms and they are the smallest entity of any compound. Polymers are the molecules of fibers.

Molecule Orientation: The degree to which the fiber molecules are parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.

Monomer: A single unit, which goes to make a polymer.

Monoprint: The result obtained from printmaking methods that yield only one unique print.

Monoprint Equipment: Brushes; papers or cloths; mixing slabs; block-printing inks; palette knife; rollers.

Monotype: A form of printmaking that produces only one or two images; a plate or glass sheet (or virtually any surface) is painted with ink or paint and paper pressed against this surface. A traced monotype is made by drawing on a top sheet placed over another sheet containing some sort of pigment, thus transferring the image to a sheet on the bottom.

Multiples (Prefix) {Symbol}: 10 (deca) {da}; 103 (kilo) {k}; 106 (mega) {M}; 109 (giga) {G}; 1012 (Tera) {T}.

Nanometer: One billionth of a meter i.e. 10-9 of a meter.

Nave: The central part of the church used by congregants, running from the main entrance to the altar; usually flanked by side aisles and bordered by piers and columns.

Negative: The reverse of an image, where the areas shown as dark appear as light. In screen-printing, printing the negative space means printing the background rather than the image itself.

Neolithic: Also Stone Age; starting about 10,000 or 8,000 B.C.; beginnings of settled living; farming, animal husbandry, spinning, weaving and fired pottery.

Nib: Metal tip of a lettering pen, which holds ink supply; point of lettering, which touches the writing surface.

Obeah: Rituals and magic retained in the Caribbean from African spiritual practices used in punishment or retaliation.

Occlusion: The surrounding of isolated particles of a substance by a solid or semi-solid. Absorption or adsorption of gases by a solid.

Oculus: The “eye” of circular opening at the top of a dome.

Offsetting: The process by which an area of wet printing mixture or other substance (such as a screen filler) is applied to a surface, then lifted from it by contacting it with another flat surface (e.g. a sheet of glossy paper), and then printed (offset) onto a third surface (or into another position on the first surface).

Oil Glaze: See glaze.

Oleophilic: Literally, oil-loving: describes the tendency of hydrophobic fibers to cling tenaciously to oil and grease.

Oleophobic: Having an aversion to oil; repels oil, grease, wax etc.

Op cit: abbr. opere citato. A Latin term meaning, "in the work quoted", used as a footnote reference.

Organic: (i) The term used to describe substances composed essentially of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N), often in conjunction with oxygen (O). All commonly used textile fibers are organic; (ii) In art, forms that resemble the structure of living things; shaped like the parts of plants and animals rather than machines; natural.

Orthochromatic: Photographic materials sensitive to green and yellow as well as blue light.

Outstation: An Australian colloquialism referring to small Aboriginal communities established away from larger communities and usually located in, or close to, their traditional country.

Overlaying Technique: Collage method in which smaller illustrations are pasted over a background illustration.

Overprint: Printing over an already printed area.

Oxidation: An oxidation reaction involves electron loss. That is, it is a reaction in which electrons are removed from a chemical species that is being oxidized. Older definitions (not general enough) define it in terms of the addition of oxygen atoms to, or the removal of hydrogen atoms from molecules.

Panchromatic: Photographic material which is sensitive to all visible colors and to ultraviolet light.

Paper Stencil: The paper is firmly attached to screen mesh and so acts as a resist to the printing process. Any cut out portions of the paper creates an image onto the substrate that the screen mesh is positioned on top of.

Particulate Respirator: Close-fitting high grade breathing mask designed to filter very fine particles.

Parts Per Million (ppm): One part per million is 1 mg m-3.

Pearl Binder: Pearl binder is mixed with standard pigment colors turning them metallic. It is also opaque.

Pediment: The triangular spaced formed by the gable end of a classical building; the shape created by the sloping roof and the horizontal cornice; usually holds sculptured figures.

Pendentives: The curve triangular areas of masonry that supports a dome resting on a square base.

pH: A logarithmic scale between 0-14 that that measures the strength of acids or bases. A large pH indicates a strong base (e.g. pH = 14) and a low pH indicates a strong acid (e.g. pH = 1). A neutral solution has a pH of 7.

Photocopy Positive: A positive made on acetate or tracing paper using a photocopier.

Photoemulsion Stencil: A stencil created by exposing a screen coated with light-sensitive emulsion.

Photoengraving: A photomechanical method for producing etched line or halftone plates.

Photographic Silhouette: A silhouette made by photographing a subject which is lighted from the side opposite the camera. Side facing the camera is on deep shadow and appears grey or black in the printed picture.

Photograph Stencil: A screen printing stencil prepared from light sensitive materials. The image is exposed on the stencil material and the stencil is developed with hydrogen peroxide and water. This treatment dissolves the stencil material over the image area so the ink can pass through.

Photomontage: The use of images from different photographs combined to produce a new composite image.

Photo Positive: A positive made photographically on lithium film using dark room techniques.

Pica: The old name for 12 points, the unit of measurement used in setting.

Pilaster: Rectangular column, especially one engaged in a wall.

Pinhole: An unwanted small open area on a photo-stencil that prints as a dot or a spot.

Plate: A sheet of metal or paper bearing a design from which an impression is printed.

Plumbago: Graphite.

Plumbline: Weighted string used for marking verticals.

Pochoir: The method of making an individual printing by brushing through a stencil.

Polar: A partial separation of electronic charge in atoms, or molecules.

Polar Group: A group of atoms which are either positively or negatively charged.

Polarity: The positive or negative charge of an atom or group of atoms.

Polymer: A large molecule formed by joining together, via chemical bonds, many smaller sub-units (called monomers) in a repeated pattern.

Polymerization: Molecular re-alignment impelled by some external force or treatment. An internal change by which properties of a substance are changed and its molecular weight increase without the addition of a new ingredient.

Polypeptide: A linear polymer of amino acid (protein) which are linked together by a peptide bond (-CONH- link).

Positive: Refers to the primary objects or shapes in a composition excluding the background.

Post and Lintel: The principal structural device of classical Greek architecture employing two vertical members of posts and a horizontal beam or lintel.

Pounds Per Square Inch (Abbreviation: psi): A British Imperial measurement of pressure used in pressure steaming.

Printing Processes: The main classes of printing processes are intaglio, planographic, relief, stencil. All these rely on the contact of surfaces under pressure.

Printmaking: A term referring to printing processes used in making fine art prints or print editions.

Process Engraving: The name given to several photomechanical methods of producing relief blocks or late for printing.

Process Printing: Separating color-image into a set of halftone positives each representing a translucent color (normally cyan, magenta, yellow or black). When these separations are screen printed in perfect register, the color image will be resembled.

Proof: Test print (often on newsprint or cartridge but sometimes on editioning paper), which may consist of one or more, or all, stages of a printed image.

Proofing Press: The bed of the press accommodates the height of the type blocks so it is ideal for printing woodcuts blocks and wood-mounted lino The paper is fitted to the cylinder, which is then rolled over the inked block.

Protein: A natural polymer of amino acids that is found in animals and plants. It is also called a natural polypeptide.

Pulp: The basic material used in paper making broken down mechanically or chemically.

PVC Sheet: Genotherm, rigid, gloss, clear sheet: a transparent substrate manufactured for the printing industry.

QED: abbr. Quod erat demonstrandum, a Latin term meaning "a thing which has been proved".

Quadding: Driving abnormal space (e.g. "em-quad" or "en-quad") between words in order to fill out line; also used in reference to ranging left and right ("quad left/ quad right") and centering ("quad center) in linecaster composition and photocomposition.

Quadrilateral: Plane figure bounded by four straight lines; there are six types - see below.


Quanta: Small packets of energy of light; a quanta of light can be visualized as an ethereal bullet that has no mass but only energy.

Quantity Sizes: Dozen (doz.) = 12; Score = 20; Gross = 144 (or a dozen's dozen); Ton (USA) = 907.19 kg.

Quarto (4to): Cut or folded sheet, which is one quarter of a basic sheet size.

Quartz Iodine Lamp: See "tungstan halogen lamp".

Quick Point: Needlepoint which has 3.5 to 5 inches per stitch.

Quilling Tool: Small round tool which has one hollow end (forming a cylinder). Paper is attached to cylinder end via a small slot and wrapped into a "quill".

Quire: One twentieth of a ream; usually 24 or 25 sheets.

Quoin (pron: coyn): In letterpress, an expandable device used to take up space and lock up "forme" ready for press.

qv: abbr. Quod vide, a Latin term meaning "which see", used to accompany a cross-reference term.

Radical: A group of atoms that have unpaired electrons. They are therefore very reactive. Ozone is a radical.

Recycled and Handmade Papers: Handmade papers can be embedded with floral, leaves and other plant fibers to yield interesting textures and colors. Photocopy paper may be used as pulp as it is cheap and stable, and any vegetable skins, flora and fauna can be used to give the paper a unique organic look.

Redox Reaction: In every chemical reaction that involves oxidation, a reduction process must also occur for the reaction to be balanced. A redox reaction is the simultaneous reduction-oxidation reactions that must be coupled in order to give a balanced chemical reaction or equation.

Reductant: A reductant is a chemical species capable of donating electrons.

Reduction: Reduction is a chemical reaction that involves a gain of electrons. That is, it is a reaction in which electrons are given from a chemical species that is being reduced. Older definitions (not general enough) define it in terms of the loss of oxygen atoms or the addition of hydrogen atoms from molecules.

Reduction Printing: (i) Screen filler stencil process using a single open area: a series of stencils are made (and printed) which progressively reduce the printing area; (ii) A method of printing using only one screen for every color in the image. Each color is printed after applying a block out medium to the screen, with no block-out being removed. The open or unprinted areas of the screen become increasingly smaller during the process.

Refraction: The bending of light as it passes from one medium into another (e.g. light going from air into water is refracted or bent; hence fish appear to be shifted from their actual location).

Registration Tabs: Stops or guides attached to the base of the screen frame in screen printing. Their purpose is to position the paper accurately during printing.

Relative Humidity: A measurement of the amount of moisture or water vapor present in one cubic meter of air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor the one cubic meter of air could hold at the temperature when the measurement was taken.

Reprographic Printing: Techniques of copying or duplicating printed material.

Retroussage: The term given to flicking a soft rag lightly over a wiped intaglio plate, to draw out the ink slightly and give a softer line. In other words, a technique of wiping an etching plate so that ink is drawn up out of lines, thus producing softer, richer effects.

Reversal: Term used in screen printing to describe how all areas that are open (and which print) become closed (non-printing) and vice versa.

Rice Paper: Japanese papers of various types and finishes made for artists' use, including those made from mulberry fiber, are commonly grouped under this name.

Rocker: A hand-help, spiked instrument used in mezzotint that scores the plate when rocked over it. The scoring is then smoothed out to produce values ranging from dark to light when the plate is inked and printed.

Roller: Tool with a revolving cylinder covered in various materials and used for applying paint.

Roller Printing: Application of pigment or dye to a fabric in a pattern or image by mean of engraved metal rollers.

Roundel: A circular or oval panel of white glass (less commonly rectangular) of approximately 20 cm in diameter, made of a single piece decorated with monochrome glass-paint and yellow stain. Later examples also display enamel colors. They depict religious and secular subject-matter and were designed to be viewed at close quarters, often in domestic and other secular settings. They became popular in the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and the largest number were made in the Low Countries.

Roulette: A hand-held instrument with spiked wheel that produces a grainy mark over an etching ground or directly on an intaglio plate. It was used in the eighteenth century tonal processes such as crayon and pastel manners.

Royal Water Color Society Paper: High quality paper that is a mixture of cotton and linen.

RTP: Perfect print; that is, "right to print".

Rubylith: A film used in silk screen printing.

Salt: Sodium chloride is common table salt. There are several forms: sea salt (contains other salts in smaller amounts such as magnesium chloride); coarse pickling salt and ordinary iodized salts (contains potassium iodide etc.) The addition of a salt to dye bath softens the colors and slightly retards the rate at which the fiber absorbs the dye. It is used to “draw” the color from certain dyestuffs, namely flowers, barks, lichens and roots, and is sometimes added to these when they are soaking out. A final hot water and salt rinse is beneficial when rinsing out some colors after dyeing. This adds in the fastness of these shades and prevents too much color “rubbing off” after yarns are dry.

Sandpaper: Abrasive paper available in varying degrees of coarseness. See wet-dry sandpaper.

Santeria: An African Cuban religion derived from Yoruba beliefs and rituals.

Saturated Covalent Bond: A single covalent bond that does not take part in additional reactions. In textile chemistry, saturated covalent bonds occur most frequently between two carbon atoms, and or between one carbon (C) atom and an atom of hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and/or nitrogen (N). Saturated covalent bonds are strong, stable and so not reactive.

Saunders Waterford: Stable and durable paper.

Saw Toothing: The result when photo-emulsion is applied too thinly to the mesh and does not bridge it adequately: this causes printed edges of photo-stencils to "step", resembling the teeth of a saw rather than a straight line.

Scaling (Scaling Up): To determine the degree of enlargement or reduction necessary to reproduce an original image within a given area of a design. The scaling may be represented as a percentage of the image area or in figures proportional to the dimension of the original, using a diagonal bisection of the image to govern the increased or reduced measurements.

Scam: A rough sketch showing the basic idea for an advertisement or design.

Scoop Coater: A tool used to apply photo emulsion to the screen.

Scoring: It is - in bottle cutting, scratching a fine clean line into the surface of the bottle to provide a break line.

> Screen: A wooden or aluminum frame with polyester mesh stretched over it; stencils are attached to the screen or created directly on it.

Screen Filler: Liquid applied to a degreased mesh, which dries close areas of mesh, forming a stencil: stopping out.

Screen Landing Pad: Small pad of soft material (a household duster folded in four and taped at the edges), with a length of cord attached for retrieval. It is placed on one of the front corners of the horizontal glass surface of a UV exposure unit. When a screen is placed on the unit, one corner is "touched down" on the pad, allowing the screen to be slid to the back of the unit in a controlled fashion and protecting the glass surface from scratches.

Screenprinting: A printing method that produces prints by using a squeegee to push ink through a screen. That is, a printing through an intermediary surface – the screen mesh. The images of screen prints are formed by various kinds of stencilling techniques, based on blocking out areas of the mesh either with sheet materials such as paper or stencil film or with liquids that fill the mesh.

Screenprinting Equipment: Squeegee; screen; screenprinting inks; palette knife; solvent brush to remove stencils; cleaning rags.

Second: It is the duration of exactly 9192631770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom.

Second Empire Style: The ornate, ostentatious, and largely eclectic style current in interior design in France under the reign of Napoleon III (reigned 1848-70).

Sensitometry: The science for measuring the properties of photosensitive materials.

Serigraphy: The term used for fine art screen-printing.

Shetland Moorit (Fleece): (i) Count: 56/58s; (ii) Staple Length: 2-6 cm; (iii) Handle: Soft and silky; (iv) Color: Brown.

Shoulder: Raised edge of a stencil (particularly a paper stencil or thickly applied photo-emulsion).

Silk Papers: A highly textured, sometimes delicate, almost translucent papers, with strands and fibers of silk embedded in the structure.

Smoking (Etching): Wax tapers are burnt yielding a dark smoke that deposits carbon on the ground during an etching process.

Snap: The action of the mesh lifting away from the wet print, determined by the height of the gap between the mesh and the press bed (when the press frame is down).

Snow White: Same as white, chalky, lily white. The color of snow; the whitest of whites. Zinc white.

Sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (Reducing Agent): Commercial names: Formosul and Rongalite C. It is a general purpose reducing agent. It is easy to handle and produces a good white on cellulose, cellulose acetate, triacetate and 100% silk fabric. It is rarely used on wool because it may cause fiber damage and shrinkage problems, because it functions best in an alkaline pH range. With some finer fabrics the production of a “halo” effect may cause some problems.

Soft Water: The absence of mineral salts in the water (see hardness of water).

Solubility: The degree to which a substance will dissolve in a solvent such as water.

Solvent: (i) Usually toxic (but it can be non-toxic) chemical used to dissolve oily block out materials from the screen or used as a pressurized removing agent (e.g. water pressure); (ii) Part of oil-based paints that evaporates during drying.

Solvent Cement: Special adhesive to join sheet plastic. It works by dissolving a small amount of the plastic on each of the surfaces being joined. When the material re-hardens, the surfaces are permanently joined.

Somerset: Inexpensive quality paper.

Spandrel: The curved triangular area left between an arch, the vertical from which it springs, and the horizontal across its apex.

Specific Gravity: The density of substance, expressed as the ratio of density of water.

Standard International Units (SI Units): It is also known as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI from Systeme International D'unites). It is the modern variant of the metric system that is based on a power of ten between various categories of length (e.g. metre and centi-metre), mass(e.g. kilogram and gram), volume (litre and milli-litre), and temperature (the melting of ice - 0oC - and the creation of steam - 100oC).

Stencil Card: Stout oiled manila card, from which shapes are cut in order to make stencils.

Stencil or Spray Printing: In stencil or spray printing the color is sprayed, dabbed, brushed or sponged onto a material through a stencil which has been prepared from a substrate (e.g. thin sheet of metal, plastic, cardboard or water proofed transparent paper etc.)

Stereotype: A metal cast of a mould of a wood-engraving block. The duplicate of the original block enabled more efficient printing of images on steam-driven presses. It was invented in 1829.

Stet: A Latin word meaning, "let it stand". It is used in proof correcting to cancel a previously marked correction.

Stippling: Making sharp indentations in a surface with a sharp point to provide texture.

Stippling Brush: Rectangular brush used for a stippled finish and for removing excess paint cornices and architraves etc. Available in a variety of sizes.

Strapwork: Ornamentation imitating plaited straps.

Strike Off: The production of a sample print to prove the accuracy of a printed design and registration of screens or rollers.

Strip Heater: Heater designed to heat plastic along a straight line for the purpose of softening sheet plastic so it can be bent or shaped.

Styling: As used in industrial or product design; superficial change. The stylist alters the appearance of product for marketing rather than functional reasons.

Sugarlift: Tradition etching process which results in a characteristic bold, broken, painted mark. See also lift-ground etching.

Tabbing: (i) Arranging copy (typewritten or typeset) in multi-columnar pattern within set measure; colloquialism for "tabulation"; (ii) Forming projecting portions to edges of book so as to make a tab index.

Tab Index: One in which divisions are indicated by projecting tabs on foredge.


Tablet: Same as digitizing pad.

Tabulation: Arranging information in a list or table form.

Tail: Bottom of book; also known as "foot", especially in USA.

Taipan: An Australian venomous snake.

Tanning: The treatment of hides to preserve them and keep them permanently supple.

Taoism (Chinese Term): An indigenous belief system based on the forces of nature and teachings of Lao Tzu (6th Century BC).

Tasmanian Devil: Small fierce flesh-eating marsupial.

Tear Sheet: An image, feature or advertisement torn from a periodical and filed as reference material.

Tele-: Prefix meaning "at a distance".

Telecommunication: Sending or receiving signals, sounds or messages of any kind by television, radio, telephone or any other electromagnetic means.

Temperature (Degree Kelvin): It is the fraction 1/273.16 (exactly) of the thermodynamic triple point of water; that is, the point where ice, steam and liquid water can all co-exist.

Template: Shape or sheet with cut out forms and designs, used as a drawing aid.

Terra-Cotta: A reddish brown baked clay used for earthen ware, sculpture and building construction, as in terra cotta titles, pies and fire insulation.

Thermocopy: A copy produced by the action of heat, rather than light as in photocopy.

Thick (Space): Commonly used word space in hand setting: 1/3 em of set.

Thin (Space): Commonly used word space in hand setting: 1/5 em of set.

Tingari: Commonly described as a group of Aboriginal ancestral beings, with one or more dominant men or women, who brought law and culture to the peoples of the Western desert region (Australia).

Thirtytwo-MO, 32 MO: Cut or folded sheet which is one thirty second of a basic sheet size.

Thirtytwo Sheet Poster: Poster size 120 x 160 inches (3048 x 4065 mm).

Threshold Limit Value (TLV): This is a limit value which gives the lower safety limit. Any solvent with a TVL less than 200 ppm should be avoided or treated with considerable caution. For example, the TVL of gasoline is ca. 300 ppm. In the case of solvents you need to prevent contact with eyes and skin for a TLV of 2 mg m-3 (2ppm). Note: Sometimes Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) is used in lieu of TLV.

Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV - STEL): TVL for short term exposure, up to 15 minutes.

Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average (TLV - TWA): TVL for exposure during the whole working week.

Thumb Index: One in which thumb-sized chunks are cut out of foredge for greater ease of reference - see figure below.


Tilde: Diacritical sign.

Time: Both the SI unit and the Imperial system have the same units for time.
1 Year = 3.16x107 seconds (s); 1 Month (31 Days) = 267.84 x 108 s; 1 Day = 8.64 x 104 s; 1 hour = 3.6 x 103 s; 1 minute = 60 s.

Tint Plate: One used to print color background to type, line or half tone matter.

Title Page: That page of a book carrying title, author and publisher.

Tjukurpa: The "Tjukurpa" or "Dreamtime" or "Dreaming" as it is sometimes loosely translated into English, is fundamental to Central Australian Aboriginal life. It defines traditional aboriginal law and religion and encompasses the land and its creation and all that exists. Different language groups of Central Australia have different words and spellings for the same concepts, sometimes capitalized and sometimes not. Some of these are: Tjukurpa (Pitjantjatjara language), Altyerre (Arrernte), Jukurrpa (Warlpiri) and Tjukurrpa (Pintupi - Luritja). It is incorrect to assume that all aboriginal groups in Australia have "Dreamings" or even similar "Dreamings" to those in Central Australia.

Tog: A metric unit for insulation value equal to the thermal resistance that will allow heat flow of one watt per square meter from a temperature differential of 0.1oC.

Tongue-and-Groove: Joint made between two boards by means of a tongue projecting from the edge of one board that slots into a groove along the edge of the other.

Topography: Science of representing features of any district in detail, as on a map.

Topology: Branch of mathematics concerned with contiguity and relative position, rather than with congruence and dimension.

Tracing Materials: Translucent forms of paper, cloth and acetate used as the basis of artwork for direct reproduction.

Tracing Paper And Drafting Film: Materials used to help re-create the effects of sheer translucent fabrics such as georgette, although paint effects may chip off if applied too quickly.

Tracing Tool: Round-point instrument used in tooling foil to trace the pattern and outline the design.

Trademark: Legal name of a product.

Tranny: Slang for "transparency".

Transept: The cross arm in a basilica church; it meets the Nave at right angles, separating the nave from the apse; the main altar is usually under the crossing of the Nave and transept.

Transfer: A film or acetate sheet bearing an image for transfer to a printing plate.

Transfer Leaf: Sheets of gold or silver leaf attached to tissue paper used in oil gilding.

Transferring (Lithography): Drawing or impressing inked image onto special coated paper and transferring it thence to lithographic printing surface.

Tribute System (Chinese Term): Neighboring states submit to the Chinese Emperor by exchanging gifts for trading privileges in China.

Trim Marks: Those incorporated on sheet when printed, to show how job is to be trimmed, and which are not visible in printed result.

Trimming: Final cutting to size of printed job by guillotine.

TRS: Abbreviation for "transpose"; instructions on manuscript or proof to transpose character, word, phrase or sentence.

Trumeau: A central support for tympanum in a large doorway.

T-Square: Ruler with cross piece at one end, used in conjunction with drawing board when drawing parallel lines.

Tucker: An Australian term for food.

Tungsten Halogen Lamp: Photographic light source consisting of a special form of tungsten lamp with trace of a halogen gas, smaller and brighter than conventional lamp; sometimes called a "quartz-iodine" lamp, though it might not contain either quartz or iodine.

Tusche: Traditionally a greasy solution used in lithography for painting washes on stones or plates. In water based screen-printing and acrylic resist etching, tusches are specially formulated painting and print making media containing opaque particles, which are used to make autographic positives. Many types of marks can be created, from reticulated washes to soft-ground effects.

Twaddle Scale (abbreviation- TW): A scale used for expressing specific gravity of liquids.

Twelve-MO, 12 MO: Cut or folded sheet, which is one twelfth of a basic sheet size.

Twin Wire Paper: That which is made from machine producing paper, which has no "wire-mark" and so is smooth on both sides.

Tyepty: An Anmatyerr word (Australian Aboriginal) meaning storytelling game of drawing in the ground; Anmatyerr is spoken by many artists from the Utopia region (Australia).

Tympanum: The space between the lintel and the arch above a doorway filled with stone.

Type: (i) Piece of metal of standard height having raised image of character or characters on its upper face, assembled with other pieces to form line, which is printed by letterpress (relief) process - see figure below; (ii) images obtained by printing from this metal; (iii) Images obtained from composition systems, which do not use metal type (e.g. photocomposition).


Type Area: Specified area of page or trimmed sheet which contains body of text matter and illustrations.

Type Family: All variants (e.g. light, medium, bold, condensed, expanded) of all sizes of given type design.

Type Height: Standard height of type from bed to printing surface: 0.918 inches in UK and US; also called "height-to-paper".

Type Mark-Up: Typesetting instructions to compositor on manuscript or typescript, accompanied by general specification.

Type Scale/Gauge: Rule marked in ems and points, and often also in inches and millimeters, for use in layout, imposition and proof correction; also called "line gauge" and "pica rule".

Type Series: Those designs and sizes of typeface referred to by manufacturer by same series number.

Type Specimen Sheet: One giving full alphabets, figures and signs, with some text settings, of particular typeface.

Typo: Slang for typographical error; can refer to either typewriting or typesetting mistake (USA term).

Typology: A common medieval narrative mode in which events in the Old Testament are presented as prefiguring events in the New Testament.

UDC: Initials of "Universal Decimal Classification": system of classifying areas of knowledge developed as extension of "Dewey Decimal Classification".

Ultraviolet (UV or U/V): Light waves beyond the visible portion of violet waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, which can be absorbed by some photosensitive materials.

u/lc (U&LC): Initials for "upper-and-lower case"

Umbrella (Religious Chinese Symbol): Royal grace.


Unit System: In machine composition of type, method of relating character widths to unit measurements, originally developed by Monotype; units are not standard dimensions but vary according to set.

Universal Copyright Convention (1952): Agreement beween signatory countries giving protection for copyright proprietor of text, photograph, illustration, movie, work of art, providing work carries proper copyright notice consisting of symbol, name of copyright proprietor and year of publication.

Unsaturated Covalent Bond: A double or triple bond, which in general are more reactive than saturated covalent bonds and so can undergo addition reactions. Also used in connection with saturated fats (which contain saturated covalent bonds i.e. single bonds - not reactive) and unsaturated fats (which contain unsaturated covalent bonds - double or triple bonds - very reactive)

UPC: Initials of "Universal Product Code" (see "bar code").

Upstroke (of Type): Lighter stroke in the type character, deriving from upward movement of pen in calligraphy - see figure below.


Vacuum Forming: Shaping thin plastic sheeting by means of a vacuum - see diagram below.


Vacuum Frame: A frame for making positive or negative process images by direct contact with an original. The frame is illuminated and creation of vacuum ensures stable contact between surfaces.

Vacuum Press: Screen-printing press with a perforated bed through which air is removed by a vacuum pump, holding the printing paper (or other substrate) in position during printing.

Vacuum (Printing) Frame: Illuminated printing frame used to make process negatives and positives; vacuum provides the best contact between surfaces.

Vajara (Chinese Term): A Buddhist symbol representing a thunderbolt.

van der Waals Forces: These forces are really due to intermolecular forces but on occasion have been named after the Dutch physicist who investigated their effects on the properties of gases. They are weak attractions or repulsions that operate at close range between all types of atoms and molecules and in the cases of attractions are the principal reason that dyes will bond in hydrophobic fibers. See intermolecular forces.

Vandyke Print: A print or photocopy producing the image as a dark brown print, either negative or positive.

Vapor Diazo: Same as ammonia duplication process.

Vault: A masonry, brick or concrete arched structure forming a ceiling or roof over a hall; barrel vault, groin vault, ribbed vault.

Vector: Generally, any quantity having both magnitude and direction and expressed by a straight line of a given length; more specifically, those line increments from which some types of computer-generated graphics displays are formed - see diagram below.


Vellum: The treated skin of a calf, kid or lamb, used as a writing surface.

Venetian (of Typeface): Early form of roman, which retains sloping bar to "e" from calligraphic origin and has less variation between thick and thin strokes - see below.


Venn Diagram: On using circles, ovals or other closed figures to illustrate sets, named after John Venn, who used them from 1880; also known as "Euler Circles" after Leonhard Euler, who used them in 1770 (although they appear to have been invented by Johann Christoph Sturm in 1661 - see diagram below.


Verso: Any left-hand page book; one which is even-numbered.

Vertex: Plural - vertices. In geometry, meeting-point of lines that form an angle.

Vertical Dimension: The measurement of an image from top to bottom.

Vide: A Latin term meaning "see", used as a reference in footnotes.

Viewpoint: The direction from which an illustrator represents a particular object to provide the best analytical or aesthetic study.

Vignetted Halftone: One in which edges are gradually shaded off into the background - see figure below.


Vine Black: Made by calcining selected wood and other vegetable products. This pigment and the other blacks referred to it are members of a group of rather impure forms of carbon made by burning selected, but rather second-rate materials of vegetable, animal, and petroleum origins. They all have a bluish undertones and when mixed with whites will produce blue-greys. They are inferior to the lampblack group in intensity and pigment properties. While these materials are probably permanent enough for most practical uses, it is wiser to select one of the purer forms of carbon as listed under Black Pigments. The vine black group should not be used in fresco or to mix with cement, mortar etc. because of efflorescence from water-soluble impurities, which they always contain.

viz: abbr. videlicet, a Latin term meaning "namely" used when citing a reference in footnotes.

VOC: abbrev. Volatile organic compound.

Voussoir: A wedge-shaped block used in the construction of a masonry arch.

Waddy: Australian aboriginal term for heavy wooden war club or throwing stick.

Walka: Australian Aboriginal word which translated means meaningful or intentional marks (e.g. sometimes used in the context of mark making on cloth).

Walkabout: Australian aboriginal term for period of wandering in the Australian bush for spiritual renewal.

Wallet Envelope: One with quadrilateral, as distinct from triangular flap.

Wallet Fold: Same as gate fold but may be applied more particularly to wallet-fold cover.

Wan (Chinese Religious Symbol): Ten thousand.


Wandjina: Generic term for a group of Aboriginal ancestral beings in the Kimberly (Australia), who control elements and maintain fertility in human beings and other natural species.

Warrigal: An Australian aboriginal term for dingo, or wild horse.

Watercolor Paper: It is expensive but its soaks up dye and paint without cockling. Some watercolour papers have interesting textures, which may add to the designs. Most papers are cotton based and the weights of the paper is usually between 190 and 300g.

Watercolor Printing: Printing process using water-based inks a relatively porous paper so that colors are absorbed and can be mixed by overlapping the layers printed.

Water-Gilding: Technique for applying transfer or loose leaf to a surface.

Watermark: A distinctive design incorporated in paper during manufacture.

Wedge-Serif Typeface with triangular serifs, also known as "latin" - see below.


Weighting: The addition of substances (such as metallic salts) to silk fabrics in order to increase their weight so as to overcome weight losses due to the removal of natural gums from the silk. The latter removal is required to ensure that the luster of the fiber is exposed. However, this often resulted in a lightweight weak fabric with poor durability and so to overcome this flaw the silk fabric is weighted. Note: Any silk fabric labelled – all silk, pure silk, or pure dye silk does not have excessive weighting.

Weight (Of Typeface): Comparative strength of appearance of any typeface.

Well: The interior portion of the screen where the ink is applied.

Wet-Dry Sandpaper: Abrasive paper that may be used with water to achieve a really smooth finish.

Wheel of Law (Chinese Religious Symbol): The teaching of Buddha.


Wire-Side: That side of some uncoated papers (such s antiques) which shows a wire-mark - as distinct from felt-side.

Wire-Stitch/Stab: To secure a book by forcing a wire through back of insetted work or side gathered work.

Wobble Board: An Australian term for a fiber-board sheet that booms when shaken and flexed and is used as a musical instrument.

Wombat: An Australian furry burrowing marsupial.

Woodcut: A relief printing method using the side grain of a wood block. Areas not intended to print are cut away below the surface of the block leaving a raised image that can be inked - see below.


Woodcut Equipment: Side-grain wood blocks; gouges and V-tools; craft knife for fine-line work on block; push knife and palette knife; block printing inks.

Wood Engraving: A relief technique of printmaking using end grain blocks of wood, sometimes bolted together to produce larger surfaces and a burin to cave them. Usually wood-engravings have a highly detailed, white-on-black appearance that required smooth manufactured papers, which could pick up detail. Wood-engravings were used extensively from the late eighteenth century on for journal and book illustrations - see below.


Wood Engraving Equipment: End-grain wood blocks; engraving tools; mixing slab; block-printing inks; palette knife; roller.

Woomera: An Australian aboriginal term for hooked stick for launching spears or darts.

Word-Breaking: Splitting words at the end of line of type to avoid "gappy" word spacing:

Word Spacing: In machine composition other than line casting, word spacing conforms to "unit system"; in hand composition, word spaces are provided in the following widths - see below.


Work and Turn: To print forme on one side of the sheet, turn it over from left to right and print same forme on reverse, thus producing two identical half-sheets; some common type of half-sheet work - see below.


Work and Tumble: Similar to work and turn, except that the sheet is turned over from gripper edge to back, instead of from left to right - see below.


Work and Twist: To print forme on one side of sheet, then turn it round (not over) and print again from the same forme (particularly suited to work involving crossed rules - see below.


Working: A single operation performed by a printing machine (e.g. embossing, inking).

Work Up: In letterpress, type space which has been accidentally pushed up.

Wove Paper: Uncoated paper, which has an even, unpatterned look-through.

Wowser: An Australian term for a puritan, killjoy, prude.

Wrap Around: Small printing section (4pp or 8pp) wrapped around another section in gathered work.

Wurley: An Australian aboriginal terms for shelter or hut, typically made of branches,leaves and grass matting.

x-axis: horizontal axis in a coordinate graph.

Xerography: A photocopying process in which the image is formed by an electrostatic charge that allows adhesion of powder ink. The ink was sealed by heat processing.


x-height: Mean height of lower case characters, which have neither ascenders nor descenders - see below.


Xerography: Printing process in which image is projected onto late, causing electrostatic charge already imparted to be discharged where light falls, thus allowing applied coating of resinous powder to adhere only to uncharged areas and then transfer to paper; also known as photostatic or dry copying process - see diagrams below.

Yapp Binding: Binding form in which limp cover overlaps leaves of book (after William Yapp, who devised it for his pocket bibles).

y-axis: Vertical axis in co-ordinate graph.

Yawulyu: Aboriginal women's designs and ceremonies (in the Walpiri language).

Yirrjta: Name for one of the two Aboriginal complementary social and religious categories (moieties) in Central and Eastern Arnhem land (Australia) - see also Dhuwa.

Yolngu: Generic term for the Aboriginal peoples of Central and Eastern Arnhem land (Australia).

Ziggurat: The almost pyramid-shaped monument of the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, consisting of four or five stages or stories stepped back to form terraces; outside stairways lead to temples and a shrine on top.

Zig-Zag Book: One made as continuous, concertina fold, usually printed one side only; may be stitched at the back or left unstitched so that it may be opened up, either for display or to reveal printed reverse - see below.


Zinco, Zincograph: A zinc plate used in letterpress line printing.

Zip-A-Tone: Mechanical tints printed off cellophane and used in the preparation of original artwork.

Zoning: Partitioning a city or town by ordinance into specific areas or zones for manufacturing, recreation, and residence.


References:
[1] A. Fritz and J. Cant, Consumer Textiles, Oxford University Press, Melbourne (1986).

[2] P. Lambert, B. Staepelaere and M. G. Fry, Color and Fiber, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Pennsylvania (1986).

[3] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd edition, Collier-Macmillan Ltd, London (1968).

[4] Ed. L.W.C. Miles, Textile Printing, Dyers Company Publication Trust, West Yorkshire (1981).

[5] E.N. Abrahart, Dyes and Their Intermediates, Pergamon Press, Sydney (1968).

[6] A. Kosloff, Textile Screen Printing, The Signs of the Times Publishing Company, Cincinnati (1966).

[7] D.W.A. Sharp, The Penguin Dictionary of Chemistry, Penguin Books Ltd, New York (1983).

[8] A. Stromquist, Simple Screenprinting, Larks Books, New york (2005).

[9] R. Adam and C. Robertson, Screenprinting, Thames & Hudson, London (2003).

[10] A. Campbell, The Designer's Handbook, MacDonald & Co., Sydney (1983).

[11] K.L. Casselman, Craft of the Dyer, University of Toronto Press, Toronto (1980).

[12] E.P.G. Gohl and L.D. Vilensky, Textile Science, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne (1989).

[13] G.H. Aylward and T.J.V. Findlay, SI Chemical Data, John Wiley and Sons, Elwood (1983).

[14] R. Mayer, The Artist's Handbook, 4th Edition, Faber and Faber, Norfolk (1982).

[15] K. Wells, Fabric Dyeing And Printing, Conrn Octopus Ltd., London (2000).

[16] A. Kornerup and J.H. Wanscher, Methuen Handbook of Colour, 3rd Edition, Eyre Methuen Ltd, London (1983).

[17] C. E. Kicklighter and R.J. Baird, Crafts - Illustrated Designs And Techniques, The Goodheart-Willcox, Company, Inc. South Holland (1986).

[18] K. Skinner, The Paint Effects Bible, Gary Allen Pty Ltd, Smithfield, Australia (2003).

[19] E.J. Gawne, Fabrics For Clothing, 3rd Edition, Chas. A. Bennett Co. Inc., Peoria, USA (1973).

[20] M.E. Ratcliffe, Fabric Painting, Salamandar Books Ltd, New York (1988).

[21] Editors A. Jeffs, W. Martensson and and P. North , Creative Crafts Encyclopedia, Octopus Books, London (1984).

[22] L. Wauchope, Silk Painting, Simon and Schuster, Sydney (1992).

[23] E.B. Feldman, Varieties Of Visual Experience, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, New York (1982).

[24] J. Fish, Designing and Printing Textiles, The Crowood Press Ltd., Ramsbury (2005).

[25] A.H. Barr, Cubism and Abstract Art, Arno Press, New York (1966).

[26] D. Piper, The Illustrated History Of Art, Bounty Books (2000).

[27] N. Dyrenforth, The Technique of Batik, B.T. Batsford Ltd., London (1988).

[28] W. Caruana, Aboriginal Art, 3rd Edition, Thames & Hudson, London (2012).

[29] M-T Wisniowski, personal communication (2013).