Saturday, January 28, 2017

Northern Editions - Aboriginal Prints
Prints on Paper

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction[1]
Located within the Casuarina campus of Charles Darwin University in Darwin, Northern Editions collaborated with artists to produce limited edition fine art prints between 1993 - 2014.

Northern Editions' team of printmakers conducted printmaking workshops on campus and in remote communities with artists from across the Top End, Central Australia, the Kimberley and Queensland. Northern Editions predominately worked through indigenous-governed Aboriginal Art Centers and facilitated printmaking as a viable art form and source of income to hundreds of artists.

Northern Editions have published etchings, silk screen prints, lithographs, Japanese woodblocks and linocuts by many of Australia's most famous Aboriginal artists. Well-known artists who have worked with Northern Editions in the past include the late Rover Thomas, Queenie McKenzie, Prince of Wales, Sally Gabori and Dorothy Napangardi (to name only a few!)

The artists created the matrix from which the prints were editioned. This involved carving a design into a lino or wooden block, drawing onto a stone (lithograph), painting on a zinc plate (etching), or acetate sheet (screen-print).

The artist collaborated with a senior Northern Editions printmaker who would advise on technical aspects of production. Each matrix was then editioned by hand in the Northern Editions Printmaking Studio. Each print from an edition was numbered, embossed with the Northern Editions 'chop mark' and signed by the artist. Limited edition prints were considered to be multiple originals.

Visitors, cultural institutions and private collectors from around the world have purchased prints from their comprehensive stock room. Selected Northern Editions prints have achieved investment status and have dramatically increased in value since their publication.

The Charles Darwin University Art Collection and Art Gallery’s permanent holdings feature more than 1,000 limited edition prints. Since 1993, the Collection has been the beneficiary of workshop proofs of prints gifted by Northern Editions Printmaking Studio, its predecessor printmaking studios and workshops, and artist-printmakers who have collaborated with University printers for 21 years. The CDU Art Collection plays a significant role in the preservation and record keeping of prints created through Northern Editions Printmaking Studio. It also houses prints created or editioned by University printmaking staff from the School of Creative Arts and Humanities.

For more details please visit the Northern Editions - Northern Editions Gallery, Building Orange 9, Charles Darwin University, Casuarina Campus, Monday - Thursday: 10am - 3pm. Email - Northern Editions.


Northern Editions - Aboriginal Prints
Dion Beasley
Dion Beasley is an independent artist born in Alice Springs in 1991 and currently lives in Tennant Creek where he attends High School. Dion applies observations of his current life including his connections with town camps in Tennant Creek and the surrounding communities in his artwork. He is particularly interested in animals. Dion also depicts social structures and relationships between people and animals, the interaction they maintain with each other and the world around them.

Title: Dog Police.
Community: Tennant Creek.
Medium: Etching.
Image Size and Paper Size: 29.5 x 20 cm and 46.5 x 38 cm.
Edition Date and Size: October 2010; 50.
Print Description[1]: This is the imaginary story of the two Tennant Creek Police officers, who will round up all the fighting dogs and put them in a "paddy wagon". The dogs are taken to Canteen Creek. The image portrays the double decked and caged wagon, which must drive through the many dry river crossings, past cows and to the community depicted by the group of houses and football oval at the top right side of the print.

Rob Brown
Since the late 1990s, Brown's wry, humorous paintings and prints have been exhibited over a dozen solo exhibitions and numerous group exhibitions throughout Australia. He is the recipient of varies awards and prizes, including a three month residency at Northern Editions printmaking studio in 2000 and more recently, the People's Choice Award in the 2009 Togasrt Art Award. Brown is represented in collections of Charles Darwin University, the Museum snd Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, the Mater Misericordiae Children's Hospital (Brisbane) and Parliament House (Canberra).

Title: Piggy Merrick.
Medium: Etching and aquatint.
Image Size and Paper Size: 25 x 17 cm and 45.5 x 25 cm.
Edition Date and Size: October 2009; 20.
Print Description[1]: 'Elephant man's horrific deformities are superficial, they are only skin deep. The love shared between Mr & Mrs Merrick is what's real. It's the kind of empowering love that makes you want to vomit!'

Nina Puruntatameri
Nina was taught to paint by her father, Romauld Puruntatameri. As a 14 year old, she would come home from school and work with him, painting his spears. Nina has worked at both Nguiu Adult Education and the Munupi Arts & Crafts doing bark paintings and screen printing. She now lives at Pirlangimpi and works on canvas, etchings, linocuts and bark paintings. In 1993 Nina won the Award for New Medium at the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art Awards in Darwin, providing recognition for her skills in etching. Her work is held in such prestigious galleries as the MCA. Nina has four children.

Nina's father, Romuald Puruntatameri, is represented in the Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory Collection. Her grandfather, Paddy Teeampi Tepomitari Puruntatameri and her aunt, Rosina Puantulura, both carvers, are represented in the Melbourne Museum.

Title: Kulama Design.
Community: Munupi Arts and Crafts.
Medium: Woodcut.
Image Size and Paper Size: 39.5 x 52.4 cm and 52.5 x 64 cm.
Edition Date and Size: June 2010; 20.
Description[1]: This design depicts the Kuala ceremony of the Tiwi people: the dancers and singers create a circle and prepare the poisonous yam for eating, as indicated by the circles in the painting. It is a celebration of life and food, the Kulama occurs at the end of the wet season.

Maria Josette Orsto
Josette started painting as a young girl, taught by her father, Declan Apuatimi. In his later years, she participated in and completed much of his work. Josette is a prolific carver, painter and batik artist. Josette lives in Nguiu, Bathurst Island and was one of the first female artists to become an official member of Tiwi Design.

Title: Pupuni Jilamara (Good Body Painting Design).
Community: Nguiu.
Medium: Woodcut.
Image Size and Paper Size: 39 x 52.5 cm and 52 x 64 cm.
Edition Date and Size: June 2010; 10.
Print Description[1]: This woodblock in two different colors is indicative of body painting designs (available in black and red - the latter is shown).

Ita Tipungwuti
'I like drawing makes me feel right, telling stories like Kulama ceremony, Jirnani Tapara, Mundungkala, like dancing, like funeral, like hunting, my paintings tell stories.' - Ita Tipungwuti.

Title: Kulama.
Community: Tiwi Design Aboriginal Corporation.
Medium: Woodcut.
Image Size and Paper Size: 39 x 23.7 cm and 47 x 31.9 cm.
Edition Date and Size: June 2010; 20.
Print Description[1]: Kulama is the celebration of the Yam Festival Harvest time. This ceremony is seen as a rite to passage for the initiation in Tiwi Culture.

Margaret Renee Kerinauia
'I learnt how to paint from the old people, they use to teach us at school. My grandfather, Jerry Kerinauia was an artist, we have the book at home. That's why I'm one'.

Title: Kulama Pukumani.
Community: Tiwi Design Aboriginal Corporation.
Medium: Woodcut.
Image Size and Paper Size: 44.5 x 27.5 cm and 53.3 x 36.7 cm.
Edition Date and Size: June 2010; 20.
Print Description[1]: This image depicts a traditional Pukumani pole with a Kulama motif. Kuala is a very special ceremony for the Tiwi people. At the end of the wet season they have Kulama. They make fire and cook special Kulama yam. This ceremony is for the initiation, good health, good marriage, good hunting, and children get Tiwi names from the family. They sing for three days and three nights. After the Kulama is finished they dance for their sister 'kulama'. 'Old people use to come and teach us how to make tuna and then paint it at school. I liked learning about traditional art. Jean Baptiste Apuatimi and Marie Evelyn Puautjimi showed me how to make ochre colors and they taught me about Tiwi Jilamara and other designs.'

Jean Baptise Apuatimi
She was born on 24th of June 1940 and died in Feburary 2013. Her birthplace is Pirlangimpi on Melville Island. Her skin group is Japijapunga (March Fly) and her dance is buffalo.

Title: Miyinga.
Community: Tiwi Design Aboriginal Corporation.
Medium: Etching.
Image Size and Paper Size: 98 x 24.8 cm and 120 x 40 cm.
Edition Date and Size: May 2012; 20.
Print Description[1]: 'This is olden days painting (Parlini Jilamara). A long time ago in the early days we put red, yellow and white ochre on our face and body for Pukamani and Kulama ceremonies. Sometimes we still do this. My husband taught me this style, he used to tell me story about that painting.'


Reference
[1] Northern Editions Gallery, Building Orange 9, Charles Darwin University, Casuarina Campus.

Saturday, January 21, 2017

Art Quill Studio 2017 Workshop Program

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This blogspot exhibits many of my students outputs from a variety of workshops. There are one, two and five day workshops as well as workshops that have a different focus. Nevertheless, it always surprises me how much I learn from my students and how enthusiastic they are to learn and so for your convenience, I have listed the workshop posts below.

The University of Newcastle Multi-Media Course
The University of Newcastle (Newcastle and Ourimbah Campuses, NSW, Australia) 2008 to 2010.

One and Two Day Disperse Dye Workshops
Various Textile Groups (Australia) 2008 - 2011.

Five Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
“Wrapt in Rocky” Textile Fibre Forum Conference (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia) 29th June to 5th July 2008.

Five Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
Orange Textile Fiber Forum (Orange, NSW, Australia) 19th to 25th April 2009.

5 Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
Geelong Fiber Forum (Geelong, Victoria, Australia) 27th September to 3rd October 2009.

Two Day Workshop - Deconstructed and Polychromatic Screen Printing
Beautiful Silks (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 20th to 21st March 2010.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
“Wrapt in Rocky” Biennial Textile Forum/Conference Program (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia) 25th June to 1st July 2010.

Two Day Workshop – Improvisational Screen Printing
ATASDA (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 28th to 29th August 2010.

Two Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Day One)
”Stitching and Beyond” Textile Group (Woodbridge, Tasmania, Australia) 2nd to 3rd October 2010.

Two Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Day Two)
”Stitching and Beyond” Textile Group (Woodbridge, Tasmania, Australia) 2nd to 3rd October 2010.

Advance Silk Screen Printing
Redcliffe City Art Gallery Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia) 10th April 2011.

One Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
The Victorian Feltmakers Inc. (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 14th May 2011.

One Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Felted and Silk Fibers)
Victorian Feltmakers Inc (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 15th May 2011.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
SDA (Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) 13th to 17th June 2011.

Five Day Disperse Dye Master Class – Barbara Scott
Art Quill Studio (Arcadia Vale, NSW, Australia) 15th to 19th August 2011.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Fiber Arts Australia (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 26th September to 1st October 2011.

One Day Workshop – Improvisational Screen Printing
Newcastle Printmakers Workshop Inc. (Newcastle, NSW, Australia) 5th November 2011.

One Day Workshops – Low Relief Screen Printing
Various classes within Australia.

Two Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
ATASDA (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 23rd to 24th June 2012.

MSDS Demonstration at Zijdelings
(Tilburg, The Netherlands) October, 2012.

Five Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Fibre Arts@Ballarat (Ballarat, Victoria, Australia) 6th to 12th April 2013.

Two Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
EFTAG (Tuross Head, NSW, Australia) 13th to 14th April 2013.

Two Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Zijdelings Studio (Tilburg, The Netherlands) 9th to 10th October 2014.

PCA - Celebrating 50 Years in 2016
Art Quill Studio 2016 Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part I
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part II
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Improvisational Screen Printing Workshop
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP) Workshop 2016
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP)
2017 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).


Introduction
Art Quill Studio in Arcadia Vale, NSW will be holding a series of workshops during 2017 tutored by Marie-Therese Wisniowski. The workshops have been structured so that they can be attended as individual workshops or as an on-going series. The workshop program will start with basic printmaking techniques and advance to mastering complex multiple imaging/overprinting relationships and techniques. The techniques are suitable for printing on fabric and paper substrates.

Today's post highlights the 2017 Art Quill workshop program and gives links to workshops so that you can view past students outcomes. For Australian enquiries please email me at Marie-Therese. For overseas enquires these workshops may be held in overseas venues provided that there are enough participants per workshop (10-15 participants) and that within each country a sufficient number of workshops can be organized in order to make the journey cost-effective (5-10 workshops). Please email me at Marie-Therese to initiate a discussion on the feasibility of such an overseas venture.

In person Master Classes are also available. For more details on these Master Classes email me at Marie-Therese. For Master Class outcomes employing my signature MSDS Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing technique see - Barbara Scott. Online classes will also be available in 2017.

Barbara Scott's sublimated print on fabric incorporating texture studies was part of her Master Class program.


Workshop One
Date and Time: Monday 6th March 2017, 9.30 am - 4 pm.
Location: Art Quill Studio, 51 Donnelly Road, Arcadia Vale, NSW 2283.
Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Email: Marie-Therese.
Title: Image Dreamings: Creation of Printing Tools.
Prior Experience: All levels welcome.
Description: In this one day workshop participants will learn how to create a lino block image, an 'eraser' stamp, styrene stamp and stencil. Image transfer and carving techniques will be covered. Participants will have the opportunity to print with their finished tools and explore the lines, textures and patterns created in this class.
Workshop Fee: AUS$125.00 plus materials fee.

Dyed, discharged, stamped, lino blocked and stenciled on cotton.


Workshop Two
Date and Time: Monday 15th May 2017, 9.30 am - 4 pm.
Location: Art Quill Studio, 51 Donnelly Road, Arcadia Vale, NSW 2283.
Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Email: Marie-Therese.
Title: Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Part I.
Prior Experience: All levels welcome.
Description: Learn how to create unique and personalized printed imagery using the very versatile silk screen. Participants learn the basic principles of silk screen printing and will be introduced to techniques such as ombre printing, create a temporary stencil, print positive & negative images and create a two color printed image.
Workshop Fee: AUS$125.00 plus materials fee.
Link to Student Outcomes

Multi layered colour, value and texture study employing negative and positive silk screened stencils by workshop participant Judi Nikoleski.


Workshop Three
Date and Time: Monday 5th June 2017, 9.30 am - 4 pm.
Location: Art Quill Studio, 51 Donnelly Road, Arcadia Vale, NSW 2283.
Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Email: Marie-Therese.
Title: Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Part II.
Prior Experience: Workshop Two (see above) or some prior experience using a silkscreen is recommended for this class.
Description: Learn how to create unique and personalized printed imagery using the very versatile silk screen. Direct and indirect stencil techniques are explored in this workshop. Participants will be introduced to techniques which include working with wax, masking tape and talcum powder as improvisational printing techniques.
Workshop Fee: AUS$125.00 plus materials fee.
Link to Student Outcomes.

Talcum powder silkscreen prints overprinted with masking tape silkscreen prints using ombre print technique on a white background by workshop participant Jeannie Henry.


Workshop Four
Date and Time: Monday/Tuesday, 3rd and 4th July 2017, 9.30 am - 4 pm.
Location: Art Quill Studio, 51 Donnelly Road, Arcadia Vale, NSW 2283.
Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski. Email: Marie-Therese.
Title: In Pursuit of: Improvisational Screen Printing.
Prior Experience: Some prior experience using a silkscreen is recommended for this class. Description: In this two day workshop participants learn to use the silkscreen in a non-traditional, exciting, improvisational manner. Using everyday, easily accessible materials, like interfacing, aquarelle crayons and other mediums, temporary and semi-permanent image creation techniques are explored using the silkscreen.
Workshop Fee: AUS$220.00 plus materials fee.
Link to Student Outcomes.

Silk screen prints using Neo Colour II crayons on a dark, multi hue printed background by workshop participant Robyn.


Workshop Five
Date and Time: Monday, 7th August 2017, 9.30 am - 4 pm.
Location: Art Quill Studio, 51 Donnelly Road, Arcadia Vale, NSW 2283.
Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Email: Marie-Therese.
Title: In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP).
Prior Experience: Some prior experience using a silkscreen is recommended for this class. Description: In this one day workshop participants will learn the tutor’s signature LRSP technique using low relief textured items in tandem with a silkscreen. The technique produces one print with each pass that results in a mono print series of prints. The images have a lovely organic, textural quality and lend themselves to interesting color combinations.
Workshop Fee: AUS$125.00 plus materials fee.
Link to Student Outcomes

Multi color low relief textured screen print employing various fiber media by workshop participant Judi Nikoleski.


Workshop Six
Date and Time: Monday/Tuesday, 4th and 5th September 2017, 9.30 am - 4 pm.
Location: Art Quill Studio, 51 Donnelly Road, Arcadia Vale, NSW 2283.
Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Email: Marie-Therese.
Title: In Pursuit of Complex Cloth: Layered Printing Approaches.
Prior Experience: All levels welcome.
Description: This two day workshop is dedicated to exploring and mastering complex relationships on the substrate surface using complex printed layering and overprinting techniques. Using a variety of printing tools, processes and color combinations, participants will be introduced to the underlying principles of color, contrast, value, scale and texture.
Workshop Fee: AUS$220.00 plus materials fee.
Link to Student Outcomes: Two day workshop. Day One: In Pursuit of Complex Cloth: Layered Printing Approaches. Day Two: In Pursuit of Complex Cloth: Layered Printing Approaches.

Workshop participant Rhonda Simonis’s print employing complex layered printing techniques using formal and random positioning print and design modes. Tools included various personal stamps and stencils and employed dyes, pigments and gold foil on fabric.

Saturday, January 14, 2017

The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This is the sixtieth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Knitting
Hosiery
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated in order to better inform your art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!


Introduction
The three basic weaves – plain, twill and satin – can be made on a simple loom without the use of any attachment. Today’s post will concentrate on satin weave.

Rapier loom for satin weave.


Satin Weave
Satin weave is one in which each warp yarn floats over four filling yarns (4/1) and interlaces with the fifth filling yarn with a progression of interlacings by two to the right or the left. (Or each filling yarn floats over four warps and interlaces with the fifth warp [1/4] with a progression of interlacings by two to the right or left).

Satin weave 4/1, warp-face. Top: Schematic of 4/1 satin weave. Bottom: Fabric.

Satin weave fabric 1/4 - filling faced. Top: Schematic of 1/4 satin weave. Bottom: Fabric.

In certain fabrics such as double damask and slipper satin, each yarn floats across seven yarns and interlaces with the eighth yarn.

Above is a schematic of an 8-end satin weave. This diagram represents an 8-thread satin weave. The long floats created mean the light that settles on the yarn is not so broken up and scattered as in a 1/1 weave. Light is reflected off the long float of yarn and creates a smooth lustrous surface we call satin. In Jacquard Damask fabrics the way the warp yarns and weft yarns interlace is a more complex arrangement of satin threads and this same technique is used to create a more ornate pattern.

Satin weave is the third basic weave that can be made on a simple loom and the basic fabrics made with this weave are satin and sateen.

Fashion trumpet mermaid one shoulder sleeveless floor-length satin dress.

Bejewelled sateen dress.

Satin weave fabrics are characterized by luster because of the long floats that cover the surface. Note in checkerboard designs that (i) there are few interlacings; thus the yarns can be packed close together to produce a very high-count fabric; and (2) no two lacings are adjacent to one another so no twill effects results from the progression of interlacings unless the thread count is low.

The Rose dress by St John features a vibrant floral print with a watercolor effect, on silk in a satin weave.

When warp yarns cover the surface, the fabric is a warp-faced fabric – satin – and the warp count is high. When filling floats cover the surface, the fabric is filling-faced fabric – sateen – and the filling count is high. These fabrics are, therefore, unbalanced; but the high count compensates for the lack of balance.

Full color sateen skirt.

All these fabrics have a right or wrong side. A high yarn count gives them strength, durability, body, firmness and wind repellency. Fewer interlacings give pliability and resistance to wrinkling but may permit yarn slippage and raveling.



Satin is a weave and not a material. The description ‘Satin Bow Tie’ is in truth not the full description as many satin bow ties are made from cotton rather than silk. The main feature of satin weaves is the uniform distribution of the interlacings, which are never adjacent to one another. A basic satin weave repeats over at least five ‘ends’ and five ‘picks’, but the warp ‘ends’ interlace only once. This type of weave pattern leads to the creation of long ‘floats’ which because of the scarcity of interlacings (and thread density) in turn produces the smooth, even and lustrous sheen often associated with satin.

Designs may be achieved with satin weave by changing the direction of floats (from warp to filling floats) to make figures, stripes or checks. Satin weaves may be used in combination with other weaves to produce woven designs.

1958 Silk plain weave, printed; silk plain weave; tulle; metal. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Warp-faced satin weave fabrics.

Satin fabrics are usually made of bright filament yarns with very low twist. Warp floats completely cover the surface. Because of the bright fibers, low twist and long floats, satin is one of the most lusterous fabrics made. It is made in many weights (see above table) for use in dresses, linings, lingerie, draperies and upholstery. It seldom has printed designs. It is especially good for linings, because the high count rate makes it very durable and the smooth surface makes the garment easy to slip on and off.

Satin weave lingerie. Satin weave is distinguished by its lustrous, or 'silky', appearance. Satin describes the way the threads are combined. Silk satin is characterized by four or more warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. This explains the even sheen, as unlike in other weaves, the light reflecting is not scattered as much by the fibers, which have fewer tucks.

Satin makes a more pliable lining than taffeta and thus does not split so readily at the hem edges of coats and suits. Quality is particularly important in linings. The higher the count rate, the better the quality. Low count satins will pull at the seams, rough up in wear and the floats will shift in position to make bubbly areas and wrinkle effects on the surface of the cloth. Satin upholstery should be applied in such a manner that one “sits with the floats”.

In crêpe-back satin, the crêpe yarns are used in the filling and the low twist warp floats give the smooth satiny surface to the fabric. The crêpe yarns give softness and drapability.

Prabal Gurung black silk crêpe back satin hand draped gown from fall/winter 2013 collection.

Care of satin fabrics should be directed toward maintenance of luster and prevention of distortion of floats. Wash or dry clean as indicated by the fiber content and press on the wrong side or iron with the direction of floats.


Filling-Faced Satin Weave Fabrics

Typical sateen fabrics.

Sateen is a highly lustrous fabric made of staple fiber. In order to achieve luster with staple fibers, low twist must be used in the yarns forming the float surface. These yarns are the filling yarns because if warp yarns were made with twist that is low enough to produce luster, they would not be strong enough to resist the tensions of weaving. A resin finish is also used on the woven cloth to enhance the luster and make it durable.

Filling sateen is a smooth lusterous cotton fabric used for draperies and dress fabrics. It is often made with carded yarns with a high filling thread count. Yarns are similar in size to those used in print cloth, but the filling yarns have a low twist and are larger in size than the warp yarns. This factor can be used to help identify the warp and filling direction of the fabric.

1950s style red cotton sateen scallop brenda swing dress.

Luster is obtained by the Schreiner finish. Schreinering is a mechanical finish in which fine lines, visible only under a hand lens, are embossed on the surface. Unless a resin finish is applied at the same time, the finish is only temporary. Carded sateens are Schreinered only, because of the short fibers used; mercerization would not produce enough luster to justify the cost. Combed sateens are usually mercerized as well as Schreinered.

100% Cotton sateen fabric constructed with a high thread count and designed to ensure minimal to zero shrinkage during first wash. While some fabrics have a basic calendered finish this cotton sateen fabric has been specially finished using the Schreiner techniques. This lines up all the surface threads to improve opacity, handle and appearance and gives an additional vibrance and radiance.

Warp sateens are cotton fabrics made with warp floats in 4/1 interlacing pattern. They have a rounded wale effect that makes them resemble a twill fabric. They are stronger and heavier than filling sateens, because of the high warp count. They are less lusterous than filling sateen and are used where durability is more important than luster. Large amounts of warp sateens are used in pillow and bed tickings.

Solid color cotton sateen stripe bedding sheet set for home use and hotel.


Reference:
[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).