Saturday, September 23, 2017

Costume Designs by Léon Bakst
Wearable Art

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Léon Bakst was born in Grodno on the Russia and Lithuania border (now Belarus) on the 10th May 1866. He died on the 27th December 1924 in Rueil-Malmaison. He attended the Academy of Fine Arts in St Petersburg from 1883 until he was expelled in 1887. Art school exposed him to the influence of the Russian Realist group - the Wanderers.

Léon Bakst.
Photography Courtesy of E.O. Hoppé.

Bakst started his career as a book illustrator and painter, achieving only moderate success as a portrait artists. In 1890 he met Alexandre Benois and joined the Nevsky Pickwickians, through whom he also met Diaghilev, founder of the Ballet Ruses.

Sergei Diaghilev at the London premier of the Saisons Russes (translated "Season Russia") 1911.
Photography Courtesy of J. de Strzelecki.

From 1893-97 he lived in Paris on and off, studying at the Académie Julian under Academist painter, Jean-Léon Gérome, whose interest in Orientalism and Greek mythology were related to Bakst. He visited Spain, Germany, Tunisia, Algeria and Greece, settling permanently in Paris in 1912 after being exiled from Russia.

From 1898-1904, Bakst was Diaghilev's art assistant for Mir Iskusstva. In 1901 he designed his first theatre work for Diaghilev - Léo Delibes' ballet, Sylvia. Although this production was never realized , from the time Bakst concentrated on designing both sets and costumes for various theatres in St. Petersburg.

In 1909, Bakst was invited to design productions for the first Saison Russe in Paris. He continued working with the Ballets Russes, becoming artistic director in 1911 until 1919. Bakst designed more of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes production that any other artist associated with the company, while also working as a freelance dress and costume designer for elect clients. Bakst designed for several productions in London and Paris and returned to the Ballets Russes to design The Sleeping Princess in 1921.

Costume Designs by Léon Bakst[2]

Comments[2]: Costume design for Ida Rubinstein in the "Dance of the Seven Veils (Salomé, 1908).
Technique and Material: Watercolor, gouache, bronze and silver paint and graphite on paper.
Size: 47 x 302 cm.

Comments[2]: Costume design for Ida Rubinstein as Cleopatra (1909).
Technique and Material: Watercolor and pencil on paper.
Size: 28 x 21 cm.

Comments[2]: Costume designed for an Odalique based on the ballet Schéhérazade (1911).
Technique and Material: Opaque watercolour, pencil, ink and metallic paint on paper mounted on board.
Size: 44.9 x 30 cm.

Comments[2]: Costume design for Shahriar (Aleksei Bulgakov) (1910).
Technique and Material: Watercolor, gouche and pencil on paper.
Size: 35.5 x 22 cm.

Comments[2]: Costume designed for a Béotien (1911).
Technique and Material: Watercolor, pencil and whitening on paper.
Size: 40 x 27.5 cm.

Comments[2]: Costume designed for a Béotien (ca. 1911).
Technique and Material: Canvas and painted cotton.

Comments[2]: Costume for Amoun (1909).
Technique and Material: Silk, brocade, metal and artificial pearls.

Comments[2]: Costume designed for a male servant (1910).
Technique and Material: Silk and satin.

Comments[2]: Costume for a Brigand: tunic and belt (1912).
Technique and Material: Examine of painted wool and cotton fabric.

Comments[2]: For a Brigand: tunic, culottes and belt (1912).
Technique and Material: Etamine of painted wool and cotton fabric.

Comments[2]: Costume for a Brigand: toga, trousers and belt (1912).
Technique and Material: Painted wool.

[1] Ballets Russes – Art Of Costume, R. Bell (with essays by C. Dixon, H. Hammond, M. Potter and D. Ward), National Gallery Of Australia, Canberra (2010).

[2] Edited by J.E. Bowlt, Z. Tregulova and N.R. Giordano, A Feast of Wonders: Sergei Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes, The Cultural Foundation, Skira Editore, Milano (2009).

Saturday, September 16, 2017

A Glimpse of Norma Starszakowna's Art
Artist's Profile

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Norma Starszakowna was one of twenty-one artists who exhibited in my curated exhibition - ArtCloth: Engaging New Visions. Her ArtCloth - Razing/Raising Walls, Warsaw - was exceptional in terms of technique, conceptualisation and texture on the fabric.

Razing/Raising Walls, Warsaw (Norma Starszakowna) - full view.

A detail of the work was photographed and placed on the front cover of the exhibitions catalogue.

Razing/Raising Walls, Warsaw (Norma Starszakowna) - detailed view.

Professor Norma Starszakowna, born in central Fife of Polish and Scottish parents, was herself the first Duncan of Jordanstone student to be accepted by the Royal College of Art. Norma Starszakowna graduated in 1966 in printed textiles and printmaking from Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee. She then established her own studio.

Norma Starszakowna has played an extensive role in higher education, as lecturer to textiles courses UK and abroad. She was Head of Textiles & Fashion and Chair of Design at the University of Dundee 1984-98, and subsequently Chair of the UK Research Assessment Panel for Art & Design 2001 and Director of Research at the London Institute 1999-2005; Director Research Art, Architecture and Design at University of Lincoln 2005-08.

Throughout this period, Norma Starszakowna has produced innovative textiles for a wide range of commercial and public bodies, including Issey Miyake Design Studio, Nuno Co., Tokyo, Shirin Guild Ltd., Scottish Tapestry Co, Aspects, Fitch & Co, Crest Hotel, Antwerp, General Accident Assurance Co, Art in Partnership, The Scottish Parliament and Scottish Arts Council.

Her work has also been exhibited extensively UK and abroad, including the V&A Museum; British Crafts Council; Whitworth Art Gallery; The Scottish Gallery and RSA Galleries, Edinburgh; Rosska Museum, Gottenburg; Hammond House Museum, New York; Guizhou Museum, China; The Deutsche Textil Museum, Krefeld, Germany; Kuopio Museum, Finland; GalleryGallery, Kyoto; Sembikiya Gallery, Tokyo; Museo del Tessuto, Prato/Florence; Izmir State Museum of Art; Centro de Artesania e Deseno, Lugo; National Museum of Costume, Madrid and National Textile Museum, Barcelona; The Dutch Textile Museum, Tilburg.

A Glimpse of Norma Starszakowna's Art
Norma Starszakowna has been engaged in the experimental use of new media and processes in the design and construction of both site-specific and fashion-related textiles since 1966. These include the innovative work produced for Issey Miyake 1990-02. Some of this work used a crushed silk substrate and overprinted pigment to create a textile that reflected both Eastern traditions of shibori and western aesthetic and use of screen-print, and effectively initiated print-based textiles in Japan (see ‘Norma Starszakowna: Unceasing Innovation’ by M.Schoeser, Surface Design, pub. Surface Design Association, USA, Summer 2007).

More recently, through her establishment of the Textile Futures Research Unit in 2001, she has begun to explore the interface of digital and screen printing processes, incorporating digital image with heat-reactive media, pigment, glaze and patinations to further develop the tensions between actual and virtual reality. The resultant textiles effectively create a palimpsest of translucent and opaque, three-dimensionally textured layers of imagery and eroded surfaces that may be viewed as part of a physical continuum, occupying a space between nature and culture. The imagery reflects issues of identity and socio-political change within urban environments and in particular, the nature of cultural estrangement, anomie and recuperation of the ‘other’.

There are two books that detail some of her early work[1] and some of her later work[2]. Both books are now out of print and so I shall only present a snapshot of a few images from each of these books for your enjoyment.

Title: Silk Wall (1983) [1].
Techniques and Material: Batik; Silk.
Size: 270 x 910 cm.
Commission by General Accident Insurance Co., Perth, Scotland.

Title: Star Map [2].

Titles (From Left to Right): Voices in the Mother Tongue II; Plaster Wall; Pink Pisa Wall; Acts of Beauty III; Rust Graffiti Wall (2003 - 2004) [2].
Techniques and Materials: Digitally printed silk organza, screen printed with heat-reactive pigment, various print media and oxidation processes.
Size: 54 x 360 cm each.

Title: Voices in the Mother Tongue II, 2003 (detail - 45 cm square) [2].
Techniques and Materials: Silk organza, printed with heat reactive pigment, various print media and metal leaf, cast.

Title: Red Rune Wall (1997) [2].
Techniques and Materials: Cotton satin screen-printed with heat reactive pigment and various media.
Size: 122 x 360 cm.

Title: Red Rune Wall (detail) [2].

Titles from Left to Right: Rice Field; China Sunset; Red Stripe - 1999 [2].
Techniques and Materials: Silk organza, screen-printed with heat-reactive pigment, various print media.
Size: 25 x 360 cm each.

[1] N. Dyrenforth, The Technique of Batik, B.T. Batsford Ltd (London) 1988.
[2] M. Schoeser, Portfolio Collection - Norma Starszakowna (Telos Art Publishing Brighton) 2005.

Saturday, September 9, 2017

Contemporary Aboriginal Posters (1984) - (1993)
Prints on Paper

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Perhaps there is no better way to illustrate the plurality of experience, the plurality of innovation and the plurality of creativity of the modern day Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders than to view the posters highlighting the National Aboriginal Art Awards (1984) - (1993). Some of the creators of images used in the poster awards (see below) had an understanding of the modern Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander culture within a European context. Others have European sounding names but have a rich Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander heritage. Some obviously have both.

These images, because of what they are advertising - The National Aboriginal Art Award - need to be themed. However, the hands that created them are contemporary, and so highlights diversity as well as demonstrates the need not to straight-jacket the works of the indigenous peoples of Australia into a fake reality. The works are as diverse as works are in any given artistic movement.

Contemporary Aboriginal Posters (1984) - (1993)

1st National Aboriginal Art Award (1984).
Image designed by Ray Young.
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 76 x 51 cm.

2nd National Aboriginal Art Award (1985).
Image designed by unknown artist.
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 60 x 42 cm.

3rd National Aboriginal Art Award (1986).
Image designed by Chips Mackinolty.
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 76 x 51 cm.

4th National Aboriginal Art Award (1987).
Image designed by Sally Morgan.
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 64 x 45 cm.

5th National Aboriginal Art Award (1988).
Image designed by Robert Campbell Jr., Ngaku.
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 76 x 51 cm.

6th National Aboriginal Art Award (1989).
Image designed by Fiona Foley.
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 60 x 42 cm.

7th National Aboriginal Art Award (1990).
Image designed by Lynda Myers.
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 77 x 52 cm.

8th National Aboriginal Art Award (1991).
Image designed by Bill Yidumduma Harney.
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 92 x 65 cm.

9th Bill Yidumduma Harney (1992).
Image designed by Ginger Riley Munduwalawala's Ngak, Ngak (1990).
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 65 x 71 cm.

10th Bill Yidumduma Harney (1993).
Image designed bRay Young's Mimi Spirits (1993).
Technique: Off-set print on paper.
Size: 57 x 82 cm.

[1] Telstra National Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Art Award 1984 - 2008: Celebrating 25 Years, Charles Darwin University Press, Darwin (2011).

Saturday, September 2, 2017

Woven Pile Fabrics[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the sixty-eighth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated in order to better inform your art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

Woven pile fabrics are three-dimensional fabrics made by weaving into the basic structure an extra set of warp or filling yarns to make loops or cut ends on a surface. Pile fabrics are classified by the set of yarns used to form the pile, as filling pile and warp pile fabrics.

Woven pile fabrics.

Filling Pile Fabric
This fabric is made from three sets of yarns. An extra set of filling yarns float across the ground weave. In corduroy, the floats are arranged in lengthwise rows; in velveteen they are scattered over the base of the fabric. The floats are cut by a special machine consisting of guides that lift the individual floating yarns from the ground fabric and of the revolving knives that cut the floats.

Filling pile. Floats are cut.

Diagram of a machine for cutting corduroy.

The figure below shows corduroy grey goods in which some of the floats have been cut. For wide-wale corduroy, guides and knives can be set to cut all floats in one operation. For pinwale corduroy and velveteen, alternate rows are cut and the cloth must be run through the machine twice. The little cutting discs are dulled very quickly by nylon yarn and this has presented one of the technical difficulties in the development of a nylon corduroy.

Corduroy gray goods showing some floats cut.

Both velveteen and corduroy are made with long staple, combed, mercerized cotton used for the pile. In good quality fabrics, long staple cotton is used for the ground as well. The ground may be plain or a twill weave. With a twill weave, it is possible to have a higher count and therefore, a denser pile. Corduroy can be recognized by lengthwise wales, which vary from wide wale, 5-8 wales per inch, to pinwale, 16 – 21 wales per inch. Pinwale corduroy has a shallower pile and is more pliable. It is warm washable, durable, inexpensive and needs no ironing. Velveteen has more body and less drapability than velvet. The pile is not over one eighth of an inch high.

Velveteen dress.

Filling pile fabrics are finished by scouring, brushing many times, singeing and waxing. The final pressing lays the pile at a slight slant giving the fabric an up and down. The back of both velveteen and corduroy is given a slight nap.

Warp Pile Fabrics
These fabrics are made with two sets of warp and one set of filling yarns, the extra set of warp yarns making the pile. Several techniques are used.

Double-Cloth Method
Two fabrics are woven, one above the other, with the extra set of yarns interlacing both fabrics. There are two sheds, one above the other, and two shuttles are thrown with each pick. The fabrics are cut apart while still on the loom by a traveling knife that passes back and forth across the breast beam. With this method of weaving, the depth of the pile is determined by the space between the two fabrics – see below.

Warp pile–double cloth method. Top: W-interlacing. Bottom: V-interlacing.

Velvet was originally made of silk and was a compact, heavy fabric. Today, velvet is made of rayon, nylon or silk filaments with a pile one sixteenth of an inch high or shorter. Velvet is not wound on bolts as other fabrics, but it is attached to hooks at the top and bottom of a special bolt so there are no folds or creases in the fabric.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's Velvet-Rayon Scarf.

Velvet and velveteen, the hard-to-tell-apart fabrics, can be distinguished by fiber content, since velvet is usually made with filaments and velveteen of staple. To tell the warp direction in these fabrics, ravel adjacent sides. In velvet, the tufts will be interlaced with the filling yarn; in velveteen, they will be interlaced with the warp yarn.

Left: Pile yarns in velvet. Right: Pile yarns in velveteen.

Another way to tell the warp direction is to bend the fabric. In velveteen, the pile breaks into lengthwise rows, since the filling tufts are around the warp threads. In velvet, the pile breaks in crosswise rows, since the warp tufts are around the ground filling yarns. This technique works best with medium to poor quality fabrics.

Velour is a cotton fabric used primarily for upholstery and draperies. It has a much deeper pile than velveteen and is heavier in weight.

Kim Kardashian's velour track suit.

Plush is a cut-pile fabric; it may be cotton, wool, silk or rayon. It has a deeper pile than velvet or velour, usually greater that one quarter of an inch. Plush is used for coats, capes, upholstery and powder puffs.

Comfy soft Plush hoodie tracksuit.

Fur-Like Fabrics may be finished by curling, shearing, sculpturing or printing to resemble different kinds of real fur.

Faux fur jacket.

Over-Wire Method
A single cloth is woven with wires placed across the width of the loom over the ground warp and under the pile warp. Each wire has a knife-edge, which cuts all the yarns looped over it as it is withdrawn. Uncut pile can be made over wires without knives or over waste picks of filling yarns. The wires are removed before the cloth is off the loom, while the waste picks are removed after the fabric is off the loom. Friezé and mohair pile plush are made in this way.

Friezé, an uncut pile fabric, is an upholstery fabric usually made of mohair with a cotton back. Durability of Friezé depends on the closeness of the weave.

Friezé is woven over wires.

Slack Tension Method
The pile is formed by a special weaving arrangement in which three picks are put through and beaten up with one motion of the reed. After the second pick is inserted, there is a let-off motion, which causes the treads on the warp-pile beam to slacken, while the threads of the ground pile beam are held at tension. The third pick is inserted and the reed moves forward all the way and all three picks are beaten up firmly into the fell of the cloth.

Warp pile, slack tension method.

These picks move along the ground warp and push the pile warp yarns into loops. The loops can be on one side only or on both sides. The height of the loops is determined by the distance the first two picks are left back from the fell of the cloth.

Terry Cloth and some Friezés are made by this method. Shag-bark Gingham, which is a combination of plain weave and scattered loops is also made in this way.

Terry cloth is a highly absorbent cotton fabric used for bath towels, beach robes and sportswear. Each loop acts as a tiny sponge. The fabric does not have an up and down.

Terry Cloth robe.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

Saturday, August 26, 2017

A Time to Remember
Annual Review

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

I started this blog seven years ago on the 26th August 2010. It is tilted towards my favorite art passions: prints on cloth, prints on paper and wearable art. In that time the blog spot has attracted over 650,000 visitors.

The blog spot also provides an art therapy for me. I was determined from the very beginning that its purpose was to inform, aspire and inspire others to get on with their own artwork. At the outset my commitment was simple: I would blog approximately 50 posts a year, including an annual review about the most popular post in the given year within each category. For your convenience I have listed below the other annual reviews that span the life of this blog spot.

Where Did The Year Go? (2010/2011)
It's Been An Exciting Year (2011/2012)
Another Cheer - Another Year (2012/2013)
The Year of the Horse (2013/2014)
Cold and Windy - But on the Dawn of Renewal (2014/2015)
A Time To Reflect - A Time To Select (2015/2016)

Before I list the categories and the most popular post within each category let me digress and ask - who are some of the most important people who were born on the 26th of August? According to the horoscope August 26th birthday people are influenced by the planets Mercury and Saturn. They have a unique set of personality traits that differentiates them from the rest of the Virgos. Individuals with this birthday are practical and balanced with a level-headed mind. They are absolutely calm and composed with a graceful demeanor and a peaceful disposition. They are attention seekers who have high standards on everything. Individuals born on this date put justice and being fair on a high pedestal in life. Thus, they are fair in their dealings and resort to just ways. However, August 26th individuals are prone to low moods and so might have mild tantrums. Needless to say I was not born on this day, but if it is your birthday today - have a good one!

Here is my top five list compiled from reference[1].

Mother Teresa - Founder of Missionaries of Charity.

Dora Gabe - Poet.

Peggy Guggenheim - Art Collector and Patron of the Arts.

Rafino Tamayo - Mexican Painter.

Federick R. Koch - Art Collector.

A Time To Remember
The number of categories on this blog spot keeps growing. They are as follows: (i) ArtCloth; (ii) Art Essay; (iii) Art Exhibitions/Installations/Talks; (iv) Artist's Profile; (v) Art Resource; (vi) Art Review; (vii) Book Review; (viii) Fabric Lengths; (ix) Glossaries; (x) Guest Artist; (xi) Guest Editor; (xii) My Students Outputs (Workshops and Master Classes); (xiii) Opinion Pieces; (xiv) Resource Reviews; (xv) Prints On Paper; (xvi) Technical Articles; (xvii) Wearable Art.

Swamped by all these categories you probably have not noticed that "Fabric Lengths" is a new category, which in previous years was characterized in the "Wearable Art" category. Although "Fabric Lengths" can be used to make "Wearable Art" they can also be made into cushion covers, chair covers, curtains etc.and so they need to be in a category of their own.

Not all of these categories are present in any given year (e.g. Artist's Profile, Guest Editor, Technical Articles etc do not appear this year). Also judging a post by the one criterion - most amount of visitors - is not necessarily the smartest approach, since the length of stay might mitigate the former statistic. How often have you heard yourself say - oops I really didn't mean to google this hunk of a man when I searched for "loincloth"! Nevertheless, this one statistic makes matters so much easier for me and so it will be used as the final arbitrator!

There were four posts in this category since the last annual review that were not part of an Exhibition blog (some nevertheless were exhibited). Of these the most popular was - Fleeting - and it was the most popular by only 101 visitors.

Fleeting - Detailed View.
Marie-Therese’s digitally designed and printed fabric length, silkscreened and hand stitched employing gold foil, lutrador and cotton thread on silky faille.
Size: 60 cm wide x 306 cm high.

Art Essay
There were six post in this category with the two most popular being Découpage and Appliqué with the former being the most popular by 36 visitors.

Child’s vintage wooden shoe and shoe tree découpage with fine strips of floral border.
Courtesy of Diane Dowe.

Art Exhibitions/Installations/Talks
There were six posts that were focussed on exhibitions and in this category two posts focussed on the one exhibition - Make Lace Not War. The most popular post in this category was Sea Scrolls - Celebrating 50 Years of Print (Prints on Cloth and Prints on Paper).

Artist: Therese Gabriel Wilkins.
Title: Playtime at the Beach (Full View).
Technique and Media: Hand printed on cotton.

Art Resource
Of the eleven "Art Resource" posts, the post highlighting Twill Weave was by far the most popular. This post was one in a series of four posts that highlighted the three basic weaves: Plain Weave, Twill Weave and Satin Weave.

A twill weave blanket which was created using 8 harnesses and 10 treadles.

Art Review
There were three posts in this category and the most popular being Traditional Japanese Arabesque Patterns (Part II). The first part of this series was published on 11th October 2014 - Traditional Japanese Arabesque Patterns (Part I) - and the third post in this series was published on 27th May 2017 - Sarasa Arabesque Patterns (Part III). While it would be expected that Part III in the series would not have seen so many visitors as Part II, what is surprising is that Part II is the most popular even though Part I was on the blogspot for almost two years longer - go figure!

Arabesque Pattern Number 210.

Book Review
There was only one book review and that was Jane Dunnewold's book - Creative Strength Training: Prompts, Exercises and Personal Stories for Encouraging Artistic Genius. I have been a friend of Jane's for sometime now and look forward to her next book. Her books are a "must" for those who want to create their own ArtCloth, Art Quilts or Wearable Art as her books guide you conceptually as well as contain quite an array of techniques to get you there.

Fabric Lengths
This is a new category dominated this year by my digital printed fabric lengths. There were four posts in this year's review and the most popular featured my non-digital work - New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics. Clearly digital colorways are all the rage, but the effects one can get using analogue modes still has significant visual impact!

Artist: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Title: 'Cultural Graffiti' in rich red/warm gold hues (draped on model view).
Technique: Dyed, over dyed, discharged, silk screened and foiled on rayon employing dyes, pigment, metallic paint and foil.
Size: 185 cm (wide) x 121 cm (high).

Guest Artist
There was only one person in this category and that was Shirley McKernan. The post was titled - Reality, Influence and Invention - and the post highlighted just glimpses of her spectacular work. It is well worth revisiting this post and gaining an insight into the art of breaking down complex ideas into creative artworks.

Artist: Shirley McKernan.
Title: Stairs to the Moon (Full view).
Medium: Silk habotai.
Technique: Hand stitched lines to create a resist for the Indigo dye.
Size: 108 cm high x 37 cm wide.

There was only one Glossary in this period and it was Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements. At the time of this post being published that one Glossary has brought over 6,000 visitors to the blogspot. These glossaries are difficult to construct and so I hope that people will make good use of them.

Abuna-e (Risqué Pictures - Japanese): Ukiyo-e, which illustrate gently erotic scenes.

My Students Outputs
Presenting my students outputs on this blogspot is always pleasurable. Judi Nikoleski did my workshop - In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP). It was a pleasure to teach my LRSP techniques to Judi. As you can see by the image below she quickly found her artistic voice using my LRSP techniques.

Artist - Judi Nikoleski - multi color low relief screen print employing textured media.

Opinion Pieces
There was only one opinion piece in this period and it was The Dilemma of Digital Art. As artists we really want to define in our mine's eye the subject and composition of our work before we get into the act of creating it. Of course, we can and often do adjust as we progress in the formation of the artwork, but in the digital world we can produce millions of images and then just grab one that we have serendipitously produced and then backtrack and make-up a story of why it was produced. In other words we have created an effect looking for a cause. This essay explores this reality and the effect it might have on the future of Art.

A water color rough of this was constructed before the artwork was produced. An example of a "cause" producing an "effect" rather than an "effect" searching for a "cause".
Marie-Therese Wisniowski, Flames Unfurling (2010).
Technique: MultiSpersed Dye Sublimation (MSDS) technique on delustered satin.
Size: 44 x 30 cm.

Prints on Paper
There were a number of posts focussing on "Prints on Paper" with the most popular being - Northern Editions - which showcased Aboriginal artists works on paper. Some of the work is contemporary, whereas others were using more traditional Aboriginal motifs.

Artist: Dion Beasley.
Title: Dog Police.
Community: Tennant Creek.
Medium: Etching.
Image Size and Paper Size: 29.5 x 20 cm and 46.5 x 38 cm.
Edition Date and Size: October 2010; 50.

Resource Review
There was only one post centering on "Resource Review" and that was The Australian Museum of Clothing and Textiles. The founding member is Nell Pyle, who assembled a large collection of clothing that spans over a century. What is surprising is that it is a non-government sponsored Museum which hopefully will find a permanent residence for fashion parades, talks on the collection and fashion in general with curated exhibitions, and displays of its permanent collection. Australia does not have a Museum dedicated to clothing and textiles. I wrote an opinion piece on this blog spot - Is Textile Art in Australia Mature Enough for a Dedicated Museum? It is clear Nell and her gang have answered that question in the affirmative.

Comments: The bonnet was a sensible and serviceable work garment of cotton, in a paisley design. The ties made sure it stayed on the head in windy weather or when caught in a branch. The front of the bonnet provided protection from the sun and wind when worn forward. The length of the 'skirt' gave protection to the neck.

Wearable Art
There were a number of posts in the "Wearable Art" category and the most popular being Felted accessories. Felt never seems to leave our artistic horizons. It is such an old technique and so appears very rustic to our senses. It is a fabric that appears to connect us with our own evolutionary process. As we become more inventive with the fabric it translates to us the journey of the human species.

Karoliina Arvilommi – Karelia Hat (2007).
Materials and Techniques: Finnish Landrace wool batting, yarn; wet felted.
Size: 35 x 35 x 20 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Liselotte Habets[1].

I hope you have enjoyed the review of the last twelve month's blogging activity. Remember every mark you make on cloth or paper might be the beginning of your next "da Vinci" moment!